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Volume 3

Volume III:
Early Psycho-Analytic Publications (1893-1899)

1906B 3/3
Preface to Freud’s Shorter writings.(1893-1906).
Volume Three of the Standard Edition includes the majority of the contents of the first of Freud’s 5 collected volumes of shorter papers. The volume contains 2 papers which Freud omitted from his collection: the discussion on forgetting, which was afterwards developed into the first chapter of The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and the paper on Screen Memories. It also includes the list of abstracts of Freud’s earlier works, which he himself drew up with an eye to his application for a professorship. The preface to Freud’s collection of shorter writings on the theory of the neuroses from the years 1893 to 1906 is presented. The collection serves as an introduction and supplement to the larger publications dealing with the same topics. The Obituary of J.-M. Charcot is first of the collection of short papers.

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Charcot (1893)
From October, 1885, to February, 1886, Freud worked at the Salpetriere in Paris under Charcot. This was the turning point in Freud’s career, for during this period his interest shifted from neuropathology to psychopathology, from physical science to psychology. The obituary, written only a few days after Charcot’s death, is some evidence of the greatness of Freud’s admiration for him. Charcot treated hysteria as just another topic in neuropathology. He gave a complete description of its phenomena, demonstrated that they had their own laws and uniformities, and showed how to recognize the symptoms which enable a diagnosis of hysteria to be made. Heredity was to be regarded as the sole cause of hysteria. Charcot’s concern with hypnotic phenomena in hysterical patients led to very great advances in this important field of hitherto neglected and despised facts, for the weight of his name put an end to any doubt about the reality of hypnotic manifestations.

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On the psychical mechanism of hysterical phenomena: A lecture (1893).
The English translation, “On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena,” is a shorthand report of a lecture delivered and revised by Freud. It is pointed out that all the modern advances made in the understanding and knowledge of hysteria are derived from the work of Charcot. There is an affectively colored experience behind most phenomena of hysteria. If this experience is equated with the major traumatic experience underlying traumatic hysteria the following thesis is derived: there is a complete analogy between traumatic paralysis and common, nontraumatic hysteria. The memories in hysterical patients, which have become pathogenic, occupy an exceptional position as regards the wearing away process; and observation shows that, in the case of all the events which have become determinants of hysterical phenomena, the psychical traumas have not been completely abreacted. There are 2 groups of conditions under which memories become pathogenic. In the first group, the memories to which the hysterical phenomena can be traced back have for their content ideas which involve a trauma so great that the nervous system has not sufficient power to deal with it in any way. In a second group of cases the reason for the absence of a reaction lies not in the content of the psychical trauma but in other circumstances.

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The neuro-psychoses of defence (1894).
The problems of the neuroses, which Freud investigated during the years 1893 to 1894, fell into 2 fairly distinct groups, concerned respectively with what were later to become known as the actual neuroses and the psychoneuroses. After making a detailed study of a number of nervous patients suffering from phobias and obsessions, Freud was led to attempt an explanation of these symptoms, thus arriving successfully at the origin of the pathological ideas in new and different cases. The syndrome of hysteria justifies the assumption of a splitting of consciousness, accompanied by the formation of separate psychical groups. The characteristic factor in hysteria is not the splitting of conscious-ness but the capacity for conversion. If someone with a disposition to neurosis lacks the aptitude for conversion, but if, in order to fend off an incompatible idea, he sets about separating it from its affect, then that affect is obliged to remain in the psychical sphere. In all cases that Freud analyzed, it was the subject’s sexual life that had given rise to a distressing affect of precisely the same quality as that attaching to his obsession. In 2 instances considered, defense against the incompatible idea was effected by separating it from its affect; the idea itself remained in consciousness, even though weakened and isolated. In another type of defense the ego rejects the incompatible idea together with its affect and behaves as if the idea had never occurred to the ego at all. But from the moment at which this has been successfully done the subject is in a psychosis, which can only be classified as hallucinatory confusion. The content of a hallucinatory psychosis of this sort consists precisely in the accentuation of the idea which was threatened by the precipitating cause of the onset of illness. The ego has fended off the incompatible idea through escape into psychosis. In summary, a working hypothesis for the neuroses of defense is as follows: In mental functions something is to be distinguished (a quota of affect or sum of excitation) which possess all the characteristics of a quantity which is capable of increase, diminution, displacement and discharge, and which is spread over the memory traces of ideas.

The neuro-psychoses of defence (1894).
Appendix: The emergence of Freud’s fundamental hypotheses.
With the first paper on the neuropsychoses of defense, Freud gives public expression, to many of the most fundamental of the theoretical notions on which all his later work rests. At the time of writing this paper, Freud was deeply involved in the first series of psychological investigations. In his “History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement”, Freud declared that the theory of repression, or defense, to give it its alternative name, is the cornerstone on which the whole structure of psychoanalysis rests. The clinical hypothesis of defense, however, is itself necessarily based on the theory of cathexis. Throughout this period, Freud appeared to regard the cathectic processes as material events. The pleasure principle, no less fundamental than the constancy principle, was equally present, though once more only by implication. Freud regarded the 2 principles as intimately connected and perhaps identical. It is probably correct to suppose that Freud was regarding the quota of affect as a particular manifestation of the sum of excitation. Affect is what is usually involved in the cases of hysteria and obsessional neurosis with which Freud was chiefly concerned in early days. For that reason he tended at that time to describe the displaceable quantity as a quota of affect rather than in more general terms as an excitation; and this habit seems to have persisted even in the metaphysical papers where a more precise differentiation might have contributed to the clarity of his argument.

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Obsessions and phobias: Their psychical mechanism and their aetiology (1895).
Obsessions and phobias cannot be included under neurasthenia proper. Since the patients afflicted with these symptoms are no more often neurasthenics than not. Obsessions and phobias are separate neuroses, with a special mechanism and etiology. Traumatic obsessions and phobias are allied to the symptoms of hysteria. Two constituents are found in every obsession: 1) an idea that forces itself upon the patient; and 2) an associated emotional state. In many true obsessions it is plain that the emotional state is the principal thing, since that state persists unchanged while the idea associated with it varies. It is the false connection between the emotional state and the associated idea that accounts for the absurdity so characteristic of obsessions. The great difference between phobias is that in the latter the emotion is always one of anxiety, fear. Among the phobias, 2 groups may be differentiated according to the nature of the object feared: 1) common phobias, an exaggerated fear of things that everyone detests or fears to some extent; and 2) contingent phobias, the fear of special conditions that inspire no fear in the normal man. The mechanism of phobias is entirely different from that of obsessions – nothing is ever found but the emotional state of anxiety which brings up all the ideas adapted to become the subject of a phobia. Phobias then are a part of the anxiety neurosis, which has a sexual origin.

Obsessions and phobias: Their psychical mechanism and their aetiology (1895).
Appendix: Freud’s views on phobias.
Freud’s earliest approach to the problem of phobias was in his first paper on the neuropsychoses of defense. In the earliest of his papers, he attributed the same mechanism to the great majority of phobias and obsessions, while excepting the purely hysterical phobias and the group of typical phobias of which agoraphobia is a model. This later distinction is the crucial one, for it implies a distinction between phobias having a psychical basis and those without. This distinction links with what were later to be known as the psychoneuroses and the actual neuroses. In the paper on obsessions and phobias, the distinction seems to be made not between 2 different groups of phobias but between the obsessions and the phobias, the latter being declared to be a part of the anxiety neurosis. In the paper on anxiety neurosis, the main distinction was not between obsessions and phobias but between phobias belonging to obsessional neurosis and those belonging to anxiety neurosis. There remain undetermined links between phobias, hysteria, obsessions, and anxiety neurosis.

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On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis” (1895).
Editors’ note, introduction and Part I. The clinical symptomatology of anxiety neurosis.
The paper, “On the Grounds for Detaching a Particular Syndrome from Neurasthenia under the Description Anxiety Neurosis” may be regarded as the first part of a trail that leads through the whole of Freud’s writings. According to Freud, it is difficult to make any statement of general validity about neurasthenia, so long as it is used to cover all the things which Beard has included under it. It was proposed that the anxiety neurosis syndrome be detached from neurasthenia. The symptoms of this syndrome are clinically much more closely related to one another than to those of genuine neurasthenia; and both the etiology and the mechanism of this neurosis are fundamentally different from the etiology and mechanism of genuine neurasthenia. What Freud calls anxiety neurosis may be observed in a completely developed form or in a rudimentary one, in isolation or combined with other neuroses. The clinical picture of anxiety neurosis comprises some of the following symptoms: general irritability; anxious expectation; sudden onslaughts of anxiety; waking up at night in a fright, vertigo, disturbances in digestive activities and attacks of paraesthesias. Several of the symptoms that are mentioned, which accompany or take the place of an anxiety attack, also appear in a chronic form.

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On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis” (1895).
Part II. Incidence and aetiology of anxiety neurosis.
In some cases of anxiety neurosis no etiology at all is discovered. But where there are grounds for regarding the neurosis as an acquired one, careful inquiry directed to that end reveals that a set of noxae and influences from sexual life are the operative etiological factors. In females, disregarding their innate disposition, anxiety neurosis occurs in the following cases: as virginal anxiety or anxiety in adolescents; as anxiety in the newly married; as anxiety in women whose husbands suffer from ejaculatio praecox or from markedly impaired potency; and whose husbands practice coitus interruptus or reservatus; anxiety neurosis also occurs as anxiety in widows and intentionally abstinent women; and as anxiety in the climacteric during the last major increase of sexual need. The sexual determinants of anxietyneurosis in men include: anxiety of intentionally abstinent men, which is frequently combined with symptoms of defense; anxiety in men in a state of unconsummated excitation, or in those who content themselves with touching or looking at women; anxiety in men who practice coitus interruptus; and anxiety in senescent men. There are 2 other cases which apply to both sexes. 1) People who, as a result of practicing masturbation, have been neurasthenics, fall victim to anxiety neurosis as soon as they give up their form of sexual satisfaction. 2) Anxiety neurosis arises as a result of the factor of overwork or exhausting exertion.

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On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis” (1895).
Part III. First steps towards a theory of anxiety neurosis.
According to Freud, the mechanism of anxiety neurosis is to be looked for in a deflection of somatic sexual excitation from the psychical sphere, and in a consequent abnormal employment of that excitation. This concept of the mechanism of anxiety neurosis can be made clearer if the following view of the sexual process, which applies to men, is accepted. In the sexually mature male organism, somatic sexual excitation is produced and periodically becomes a stimulus to the psyche. The group of sexual ideas which is present in the psyche becomes supplied with energy and there comes into being the physical state of libidinal tension which brings with it an urge to remove that tension. A psychical unloading of this kind is possible only by means of what is called specific or adequate action. Anything other than the adequate action would be fruitless, for once the somatic sexual excitation has reached threshold value, it is turned continuously into psychical excitation and something must positively take place which will free the nerve endings from the pressure on them. Neurasthenia develops whenever the adequate unloading is replaced by a less adequate one. This view depicts the symptoms of anxiety neurosis as being in a sense surrogates of the omitted specific action following on sexual excitation. In the neurosis, the nervous system is reacting against a source of excitation which is internal, whereas in the corresponding affect it is reacting against an analogous source of excitation which is external.

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On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis” (1895).
Part IV. Relation to other neuroses.
The purest cases of anxiety neurosis, usually the most marked, are found in sexually potent youthful individuals, with an undivided etiology, and an illness that is not too long standing. More often, however, symptoms of anxiety occur at the same time as, and in combination with symptoms of neurasthenia, hysteria, obsessions, or melancholia. Wherever a mixed neurosis is present, it will be possible to discover an intermixture of several specific etiologies. The etiological conditions must be distinguished for the onset of the neuroses from their specific etiological factors. The former are still ambiguous, and each of them can produce different neuroses. Only the etiological factors which can be picked out in them, such as inadequate disburdening, psychical insufficiency or defense accompanied by substitution, have an unambiguous and specific relation to the etiology of the individual major neuroses. Anxiety neurosis presents the most interesting agreement with, and differences from, the other major neuroses, in particular neurasthenia and hysteria. It shares with neurasthenia one main characteristic, namely, that the source of excitation lies in the somatic field instead of the psychical one as is the case in hysteria and obsessional neurosis. The symptomatology of hysteria and anxiety neurosis shows many points in common. The appearance of the following symptoms either in a chronic form or in attacks, the paraesthesias, the hyperaesthesias and pressure points are found in both hysterias and anxiety attacks.

On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis” (1895).
Appendix: The term “Angst” and its English translation.
There are at least 3 instances in which Freud discusses the various shades of meaning expressed by the German word Angst and the cognate Furcht and Schreck. Though he stresses the anticipatory element and absence of an object in Angst, the distinctions he draws are not entirely convincing, and his actual usage is far from invariably obeying them. Angst may be translated to many similarly common English words: fear, fright, alarm, etc. Angst often appears as a psychiatric term: The word universally adopted for the purpose has been anxiety. The English translator is driven to compromise: He must use anxiety in technical or semitechnical connections, and must elsewhere choose whatever everyday English word seems most appropriate.

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A reply to criticisms of my paper on anxiety neurosis (1895).
A reply to Lowenfeld’s criticisms of Freud’s paper (January 1895) on anxiety neurosis is presented. It is Freud’s view that the anxiety appearing in anxiety neurosis does not admit of a psychical derivation and he maintains that fright must result in hysteria or a traumatic neurosis, but not in an anxiety neurosis. Lowenfeld insists that in a number of cases ‘states of anxiety’ appear immediately or shortly after a psychical shock. Freud states that in the etiology of the neuroses, sexual factors play a predominant part. Lowenfeld relates experiences where he has seen anxiety states appear and disappear when a change in the subject’s sexual life had not taken place but where other factors were in play. The following concepts are postulated in order to understand the complicated etiological situation which prevails in the pathology of the neuroses: precondition, specific cause, concurrent causes, and precipitating or releasing cause. Whether a neurotic illness occurs at all depends upon a quantitative factor, upon the total load on the nervous system as compared with the latter’s capacity for resistance. What dimensions the neurosis attains depends in the first instance on the amount of the hereditary taint. What form the neurosis assumes is solely determined by the specific etiological factor arising from sexual life.

1896A 3/141
Heredity and the aetiology of the neuroses (1896).
The paper, “Heredity and the Etiology of the Neuroses” is a summary of Freud’s contemporary view on the etiology of all 4 of what he then regarded as the main types of neurosis: the 2 psychoneuroses, hysteria and obsessional neurosis; and the 2 actual neuroses, neurasthenia and anxiety neurosis. Opinion of the etiological role of heredity in nervous illness ought to be based on an impartial statistical examination. Certain nervous disorders can develop in people who are perfectly healthy and whose family is above reproach. In nervous pathology, there is similar heredity and also dissimilar heredity. Without the existence of a special etiological factor, heredity could do nothing. The etiological influences, differing among themselves in their importance and in the manner in which they are related to the effect they produce, can be grouped into 3 classes: preconditions, concurrent causes, and specific causes. In the pathogenesis of the major neuroses, heredity fulfills the role of a precondition. Some of the concurrent causes of neuroses are: emotional disturbance, physical exhaustion, acute illness, intoxications, traumatic accidents, etc. The neuroses have as their common source the subject’s sexual life, whether they lie in a disorder of his contemporary sexual life or in important events in his past life.

1896B 3/162
Further remarks on the neuro-psychoses of defence (1896).
Part I. The “specific” aetiology of hysteria.
“Further Remarks on the Neuropsychoses of Defense” takes up the discussion at a point that Freud reached in his first paper, (1894). The ultimate case of hysteria is always the seduction of a child by an adult. The actual traumatic event always occurs before the age of puberty, though the outbreak of the neurosis occurs after puberty. This whole position is later abandoned by Freud, and its abandonment signalizes a turning point in his views. In a short paper published in 1894, Freud grouped together hysteria, obsessions, and certain cases of acute hallucinatory confusion under the name of neuropsychoses of defense because those affections turned out to have one aspect in common. This was that their symptoms arose through the psychical mechanism of defense, that is, in an attempt to repress an incompatible idea which had come into distressing opposition to the patient’s ego. The symptoms of hysteria can only be understood if they are traced back to experiences which have a traumatic effect. These psychical traumas refer to the patient’s sexual life. These sexual traumas must have occurred in early childhood and their content must consist of an actual irritation of the genitals. All the experiences and excitations which, in the period of life after puberty, prepare the way for, or precipitate, the outbreak of hysteria, demonstrably have their effect only because they arouse the memory trace of these traumas in childhood, which do not thereupon become conscious but lead to a release of affect and to repression. Obsessions also presuppose a sexual experience in childhood.

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Further remarks on the neuro-psychosis of defence (1896).
Part II. The nature and mechanism of obsessional neurosis.
Sexual experiences of early childhood have the same significance in the etiology of obsessional neurosis as they have in that of hysteria. In all the cases of obsessional neurosis, Freud found a substratum of hysterical symptoms which could be traced back to a scene of sexual passivity that preceded the pleasurable action. Obsessional ideas are transformed self-reproaches which have reemerged from repression and which relate to some sexual act that was performed with pleasure in childhood. In the first period, childhood immorality, events occur which contain the germ of the later neurosis. This period is brought to a close by the advent of sexual maturation. Self-reproach now becomes attached to the memory of these pleasurable actions. The second period, illness, is characterized by the return of the repressed memories. There are 2 forms of obsessional neurosis, according to whether what forces an entrance into consciousness is solely the mnemic content of the act involving self-reproach, or whether the self-reproachful affect connected with the act does so as well. The first form includes the typical obsessional ideas, in which the content engages the patient’s attention and, he merely feels an indefinite unpleasure, whereas the only affect which would be suitable to the obsessional idea would be one of self-reproach. A second form of obsessional neurosis comes about if what has forced its way to representation in conscious psychical life is not the repressed mnemic content but the repressed self-reproach.

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Further remarks on the neuro-psychosis of defense (1896).
Part III. Analysis of a case of chronic paranoia.
Freud postulates that paranoia, like hysteria and obsessions, proceeds from the repression of distressing memories and that its symptoms are determined in their form by the content of what has been repressed. The analysis of a case of chronic paranoia is presented. Frau P., 32 years of age, has been married for 3 years and is the mother of a 2-year-old child. Six months after the birth of her child, she became uncommunicative and distrustful, showed aversion to meeting her husband’s brothers and sisters and complained that the neighbors in the small town in which she lived were rude and inconsiderate to her. The patient’s depression began at the time of a quarrel between her husband and her brother. Her hallucinations were part of the content of repressed childhood experiences, symptoms of the return of the repressed while the voices originated in the repression of thoughts which were self-reproaches about experiences that were analogous to her childhood trauma. The voices were symptoms of the return of the repressed. Part of the symptoms arose from primary defense, namely, all the delusional ideas which were characterized by distrust and suspicion and which were concerned with ideas of being persecuted by others. Other symptoms are described as symptoms of the return of the repressed. The delusional ideas which have arrived in consciousness by means of a compromise make demands on the thought activity of the ego until they can be accepted without contradiction.

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The aetiology of hysteria (1896).
“The Etiology of Hysteria” may be regarded as an amplified repetition of the first section of its predecessor, the second paper on the neuropsychoses of defense. No hysterical symptom can arise from a real experience alone, but in every case, the memory of earlier experiences plays a part in causing the symptoms. Whatever case and symptom are taken as out point of departure leads to the field of sexual experience. After the chains of memories have converged, we come to the field of sexuality and to a small number of experiences which occur for the most part at the same period of life, namely, at puberty. If we press on with the analysis into early childhood, we bring the patient to reproduce experiences which are regarded as the etiology of his neurosis. Freud put forward the thesis that for every case of hysteria there are one or more occurrences of premature sexual experience, occurrences which belong to the earliest years of childhood but which can be reproduced through the work of psychoanalysis in spite of the intervening decades. Sexual experiences in childhood consisting in stimulation of the genitals must be recognized as being the traumas which lead to a hysterical reaction to events at puberty and to the development of hysterical symptoms. Sensations and paraesthesias are the phenomena which correspond to the sensory content of the infantile scenes, reproduced in a hallucinatory fashion and often painfully intensified.

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Abstracts of the scientific writings of Dr. Sigm. Freud, 1877-1897 (1897).
Freud was appointed a Privatdozent at the Vienna University in 1885. Twelve years later, Freud’s name was put forward to the Council of the Faculty as Professor Extraordinarius. The necessary preliminaries included a Curriculum Vitae and a bibliographical abstract of publications. Thirteen abstracts of the scientific writings of Dr. Sigmund Freud written before, and 26 abstracts written after his appointment as Privatdozent are presented.

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Sexuality in the aetiology of the neuroses (1896).
In every case of neurosis there is a sexual etiology; but in neurasthenia it is an etiology of a present day kind, whereas in the psychoneuroses the factors are of an infantile nature. The sexual causes are the ones which most readily offer the physician a foothold for his therapeutic influence. When heredity is present, it enables a strong pathological effect to come about where otherwise only a very slight one would have resulted. Neurasthenia is one of those affections which anyone might easily acquire without having any hereditary taint. It is only the sexual etiology which makes it possible for us to understand all the details of the clinical history of neurasthenics, the mysterious improvements in the middle of the course of the illness and the equally incomprehensible deteriorations, both of which are usually related by doctors and patients to whatever treatment has been adopted. Since the manifestations of the psychoneuroses arise from the deferred action of unconscious psychical traces, they are accessible to psychotherapy. The main difficulties which stand in the way of the psychoanalytic method of cure are due to the lack of understanding among doctors and laymen of the nature of the psychoneuroses.

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The psychical mechanism of forgetfulness (1898).
The phenomenon of forgetfulness, which has been universally experienced, usually affects proper names. Two accompanying features of forgetfulness are an energetic deliberate concentration of attention which proves powerless, to find the lost name and in place of the name we are looking for, another name promptly appears, which we recognize as incorrect and reject, but which persists in coming back. The best procedure of getting hold of the missing name is not to think of it and after a while, the missing name shoots into one’s mind. While Freud was vacationing, he went to Herzegovina. Conversation centered around the condition of the 2 countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina), and the character of their inhabitants. The discussion turned to Italy and of pictures. Freud recommended that his companions visit Orvieto some time, in order to see the frescoes there of the End of the World and the Last Judgement. Freud was unable to think of the artist’s name. He could only think of Botticelli and Boltraffio. He had to put up with this lapse of memory for several days until he met someone who told him that the artist’s name was Luca Signorelli. Freud interpreted the forgetting as follows: Botticelli contains the same final syllables as Signorelli; the name Bosnia showed itself by directing the substitution to 2 artists’ names which began with the same syllable “Bo”. The place where a piece of news about death and sexuality reached Freud was called “Trafoi” similar to the second half of the name Boltrafflo. This example may serve as a model for the pathological processes to which the psychical symptoms of the psychoneuroses, hysteria, obsessions and paranoia, owe their origin. A repressed train of thought takes possession in neuroses of an innocent recent impression and draws it down with itself into repression.

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Screen memories (1899).
The age to which the content of the earliest memories of childhood is usually referred back is the period between the ages of 2 and 4. The most frequent content of the first memories of childhood are occasions of fear, shame, physical pain, etc., and important events such as illnesses, deaths, fires; births of brothers and sisters, etc. A case is presented of a man of university education, aged 38, who moved at the age of 3. His memories of his first place of residence fall into 3 groups. The first group consists of scenes of which his parents have repeatedly since described to him. The second group comprises scenes which have not been described and some of which could not have been described to him. The pictures and scenes of the first 2 groups are probably displaced memories from which the essential element has for the most part been omitted. In the third group, there is material, which cannot be understood. Two sets of phantasies were projected onto one another and a childhood memory was made of them. A screen memory is a recollection whose value lies in that it represents in the memory impressions and thoughts of a later date whose content is connected with its own by symbolic or similar links. The concept of screen memory owes its value as a memory not to its own content but to the relation existing between that content and some other, that has been suppressed. Different classes of screen memories can be distinguished according to the nature of that relation. A screen memory may be described as retrogressive. Whenever in a memory the subject himself appears as an object among other objects, the contrast between the acting and the recollecting ego may be taken as evidence that the original impression has been worked over.

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Autobiographical note (1901).
Freud’s autobiographical note, written in the autumn of 1899 is presented. He regarded himself as a pupil of Brucke and of Charcot. His appointment as Privatdozent was in 1885 and he worked as physician and Dozent at Vienna University after 1886. Freud produced earlier writings on histology and cerebral anatomy, and subsequently, clinical works on neuropathology; he translated writings by Charcot and Bernheim. Since 1895, Freud turned to the study of the psychoneuroses and especially hysteria, and in a series of shorter works he stressed the etiological significance of sexual life for the neuroses. He has also developed a new psychotherapy of hysteria, on which very little has been published.

Abstracts of the Standard Edition of 
the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud

Carrie Lee Rothgeb, Editor


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