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Volume 22

Volume XXII: 
New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works (1932-1936)

1933A 22/3
New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (1933).
Editor’s note (1964) and Preface.
The New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis was published on December 6, 1932. The first lecture, on dreams, is a recapitulation of the dream section in the earlier series. The third, fourth, and fifth lectures (on the structure of the mind, on anxiety and the theory of the instincts and on female psychology) introduce entirely new material and theories and, at all events in the case of the third and fourth lectures, plunge into meta-psychological and theoretical discussions of a difficulty which had been studiously avoided 15 years earlier. The remaining three lectures deal with a number of miscellaneous topics only indirectly related to psychoanalysis and deal with them in what might almost be described as a popular manner. The Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis were delivered during the two Winter Terms of 1915 to 1916 and 1916 to 1917 in a lecture room of the Vienna Psychiatric Clinic before an audience gathered from all the Faculties of the University. The new lectures were never delivered. They are continuations and supplements. These lectures are addressed to the nonprofessional multitude of educated people to whom a benevolent, even though cautions interest in the characteristics and discoveries of psycho-analysis, is attributed.

1933A 22/7
New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (1933).
Lecture XXIX: Revision of the theory of dreams.
A revision of the theory of dreams is presented. What has been called the dream is described as the text of the dream or the manifest dream and what we are looking for, is described as the latent dream thoughts. We have to transform the manifest dream into the latent one, and to explain how, in the dreamer’s mind, the latter has become the former. The patient makes associations to the separate portions of the manifest dream. The longer and more roundabout the chain of associations, the stronger the resistance. The dream is a compromise structure. It has a double function; on the one hand it is ego-syntonic, since, by getting rid of the stimuli which are interfering with sleep, it serves the wish to sleep; on the other hand it allows a repressed instinctual impulse to obtain the satisfaction that is possible in these circumstances, in the form of the hallucinated fulfillment of a wish. The whole process of forming a dream which is permitted by the sleeping ego is, however, subject to the condition of the censorship, which is exercised by the residue of the repression still in operation. Under the influence of the censorship the processes of condensation and displacement subject the dream thoughts to distortion after which secondary revision provides the dream with a smooth facade. Dreams are divided into wishful dreams, anxiety dreams, and punishment dreams. Punishment dreams are fulfillment of wishes, though not of wishes of the instinctual impulses but of those of the critical, censoring, and punishing agency in the mind.

1933A 22/31
New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (1933).
Lecture XXX: Dreams and occultism.
Dreams and occultism are discussed. Dreams have often been regarded as the gateway into the world of mysticism, and even today are themselves looked on by many people as an occult phenomenon. Psychoanalysis may throw a little light on events described as occult. Freud gained the impression from his patients that fortunetellers merely bring to expression the thoughts, and more especially the secret wishes, of those who are questioning the tellers. He concludes that we are therefore justified in analyzing these prophecies as though they were subjective products, phantasies or dreams of the people concerned. If there is such a thing as telepathy as a real process, we may suspect that, in spite of its being so hard to demonstrate, it is quite a common phenomenon. We are reminded of the frequent anxiety felt by children over the idea that their parents know all their thoughts without having to be told them, an exact counterpart and perhaps the source of the belief of adults in the omniscience of God.

1933A 22/57
New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (1933).
Lecture XXXI: The dissection of the psychical personality.
The dissection of the psychical personality is presented. Symptoms are derived from the repressed; they are, as it were, its representatives before the ego. The ego can take itself as an object, can treat itself like other objects, can observe itself, criticize itself, and be split. The superego, which takes over the power, function, and even the methods of the parental agency, is not merely its successor but actually the legitimate heir of its body. The basis of the process is called identification and follows from the Oedipus complex. The superego, the ego, and the id are the three realms, regions, provinces, into which we divide an individual’s mental apparatus, and we shall be concerned with the relations between them. In addition to the id being unconscious, portions of the ego and superego are unconscious as well. The id is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality. The id knows no judgments of value: no good and evil, no morality. Instinctual cathexes seeking discharge is all there is in the id. The ego is that part of the id which is adapted for the reception of stimuli from the external world, for remembering these, for testing reality, for controlling motility, and for synthesizing and organizing its mental processes. The superego merges into the id; indeed, as heir to the Oedipus complex it has intimate relations with the id; it is more remote than the ego from the perceptual system. The id has intercourse with the external world only through the ego. The intention of psychoanalysis is to strengthen the ego, to make it more independent of the superego, to widen its field of perception and enlarge its organization, so that it can appropriate fresh portions of the id. Where id was, there ego shall be.

1933A 22/81
New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (1933).
Lecture XXXII: Anxiety and instinctual life.
The earlier lecture (XXV) on anxiety is recapitulated. The ego produces anxiety as a signal announcing a situation of danger. The typical danger situations in life are loss of mother, loss of love, castration and superego reproach. The signal anxiety is called forth when an emerging impulse is felt that would result in a danger situation. The signal anxiety results in repression and subsequently either symptom formation or reaction formation. Probably all of the danger situations are reminders of an earlier traumatic situation which consisted of a state of high excitation felt as unpleasure which could not be discharged. Earlier instinct theory is recapitulated preparatory to mentioning new discoveries in libido theory. There is a preambivalent oral incorporative stage followed by an ambivalent oral sadistic stage. After these come the anal sadistic and anal retentive stage. The instinctual transformations in anal erotism are described: the feces-money-baby-penis equation modeled on the anal birth fantasy; the character traits of orderliness, parsimoniousness and obstinancy arise from anal erotism. There are 2 major classes of instincts, sexual and aggressive, and every impulse consists of a fusion of the 2. Masochism is derived from an unconscious sense of guilt which in turn comes from the aggressiveness towards one’s parents which is found in the formation of the superego.

1933A 22/112
New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (1933).
Lecture XXXIII: Femininity.
Femininity is discussed. We approach the investigation of the sexual development of women with two expectations. The first is that the constitution will not adapt itself to its function without a struggle. The second is that the decisive turning points will already have been prepared for or completed before puberty. In the phallic phases of girls, the clitoris is the leading erotogenic zone. With the change of femininity the clitoris should wholly or in part hand over its sensitivity, and at the same time its importance, to the vagina. For a girl, her first object must be her mother. But in the Oedipus situation the girl’s father has become her love object, and we expect that in the normal course of development she will find her way from this paternal object to her final choice of an object, both of which a boy retains. The girl turns away from her mother because of her realization that she does not possess a penis: the discovery that she is castrated can lead to neurosis, a masculinity complex, or normal femininity. Along with the abandonment of clitoral masturbation a certain amount of activity is renounced. Passivity now has the upper hand, and the girl’s turning to her father is accomplished principally with the help of passive instinctual impulses. With the transference of the wish for a penis baby on to her father, the girl has entered the situation of the Oedipus complex. A women’s identification with her mother allows us to distinguish two strata: the pre-Oedipus one which rests on her affectionate attachment to her mother and takes her as a model, and the later one from the Oedipus complex which seeks to get rid of her mother and take the mother’s place with her father.

1933A 22/136
New Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (1933).
Lecture XXXIV: Explanations, applications and orientation.
Explanations and applications of psychoanalysis are presented. Whether a man is a homosexual or a necrophiliac, a hysteric suffering from anxiety, an obsessional neurotic cut off from society, or a raving lunatic, the Individual Psychologist of the Adlerian school will declare that the impelling motive of his condition is that he wishes to assert himself, to overcompensate for his inferiority, to remain on top, to pass from the feminine to the masculine line. One of the first applications of psychoanalysis was to understand the opposition offered by the contemporaries because of the practice of psychoanalysis. The first purpose was to understand the disorders of the human mind. The application of psychoanalysis to education is discussed. The first task of education is to teach the child to control his instincts; but we have learned from analysis that suppression of instincts involves the risk of neurotic illness. Therefore education must find its way between gratification and frustration. Freud suggests that teachers would be helped to find this way through psychoanalytic training. Parallel with the efforts of analysts to influence education, other investigations are being made into the origin and prevention of delinquency and crime. The therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains cramped by a number of factors. In the case of children, the difficulties are the external ones connected with their relation to their parents. In the case of adults the difficulties arise in the first instance from two factors: the amount of psychical rigidity present and the form of the illness. Psychoanalysis began as a method of treatment. If it were without therapeutic value it would not have been discovered in connection with sick people and would not have gone on developing for more than 30 years.

1933A 22/158
New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (1933).
Lecture XXXV: The question of a ‘Weltanschauung’.
The question of a Weltanschauung is discussed. A Weltanschauung is an intellectual construction which solves all the problems of our existence uniformly on the basis of one overriding hypothesis, which, accordingly, leaves no question unanswered and in which everything that interests us finds its fixed place. The religious Weltanschauung is determined by the situation of our childhood. The scientific spirit has begun to treat religion as a human affair and to submit it to a critical examination. While the different religions wrangle with one another as to which of them is in possession of the truth, our view is that the question of the truth of religious beliefs may be left altogether on one side. Religion is an attempt to master the sensory world in which we are situated by means of the wishful world which we have developed within us as a result of biological and psychological necessities. Psychoanalysis is incapable of creating a Weltanschauung of its own. It does not need one; it is a part of science and can adhere to the scientific Weltanschauung. Scientific thought is still very young among human beings; there are too many of the great problems which it has not yet been able to solve. A Weltanschauung erected upon science has, apart from its emphasis on the real external world, mainly passive traits, such as submission to the truth and rejection of illusions.

1932A 22/185
The acquisition and control of fire (1932).
The connection between fire and micturition, which is the central feature of this discussion of the myth of Prometheus, has long been familiar to Freud. The myth tells us that Prometheus, a culture hero who was still a god and who was perhaps originally himself a demiurge and a creator of men, brought fire to men, hidden in a hollow stick, after stealing it from the gods. Such an object is regarded as a penis symbol. As punishment, Prometheus was chained to a rock, and every day a vulture fed on his liver. In ancient times the liver was regarded as the seat of all passions and desires; hence a punishment like that of Prometheus was the right one for a criminal driven by instinct, who had committed an offense at the prompting of evil desires. The sexual organ of the male has two functions; and there are those to whom this association is an annoyance. When the penis is erect, urination is impossible; and conversely, when the organ is serving to evacuate urine (the water of the body) all its connections with the genital function seem to be quenched. The antithesis between the two functions might lead us to say that man quenches his own fire with his own water.

1933B 22/197
Why war? (1933). Editor’s note (1964).
The letters on war between Freud and Einstein were written in 1932. The two men were never at all intimate with each other and only met once, at the beginning of 1927, in the house of Freud’s youngest son in Berlin. Freud had written on the subject of war before: in the first section of his paper “Thoughts for the Times on War and Death” produced soon after the beginning of the first World War. Although some of the considerations discussed in the present paper appear in the earlier one, they are more closely related to the thoughts expressed in his recent writings on sociological subjects.

1933B 22/199
Why war? Letter from Einstein (1933).
Einstein wrote a letter to Freud, dated July 20, 1932. With the advance of modern science, the issue of war has come to mean a matter of life or death for civilization as we know it; nevertheless, for all the zeal displayed, every attempt at its solution has ended in a lamentable breakdown. As one immune from nationalist bias, Einstein sees a simple way of dealing with the superficial, (i.e., administrative) aspect of the problem: the setting up, by international consent, of a legislative and judicial body to settle every conflict arising between nations. Each nation would invoke this body’s decision in every dispute, accept its judgments unreservedly and carry out every measure the tribunal deems necessary for the execution of its decrees. However, a tribunal is a human institution which, when the power at its disposal is inadequate to enforce its verdicts, is all the more prone to suffer these to be deflected by extrajudicial pressure. The quest of international security involves the unconditional surrender by every nation, in a certain measure, of its liberty of action or its sovereignty. It is clear beyond all doubt that no other road can lead to such security.

1933B 22/203
Letter from Freud (1933).
Freud wrote a letter to Einstein, dated September, 1932. It is a general principle that conflicts of interest between men are settled by the use of violence. Right is the might of a community. A violent solution of conflicts of interest is not avoided even inside a community. Wars will only be prevented with certainty if mankind unites in setting up a central authority to which the right of giving judgment upon all conflicts of interest shall be handed over. There is no use in trying to get rid of men’s aggressive inclinations. For incalculable ages, mankind has been passing through a process of evolution of culture. The psychical modifications that go along with the process of civilization are striking and unambiguous. They consist in a progressive displacement of instinctual aims and a restriction of instinctual impulses. War Is in the crassest opposition to the psychical attitude imposed on us by the process of civilization, and for that reason we are bound to rebel against it; we simply cannot any longer put up with it. Whatever fosters the growth of civilization works at the same time against war.

1932C 22/219
My contact with Josef Popper-Lynkeus (1932).
Freud’s contact with Josef Popper-Lynkeus is presented. Freud’s explanation of dream distortion seemed new to him. He had nowhere found anything like it. Years later, he came across Josef PopperLynkeus’ book Phantasies of a Realist, a collection of stories first published, like the Interpretation of Dreams, in 1899. One of the stories contained in it bore the title of “Dreaming like Waking”, and it aroused Freud’s deepest interest. There was a description in it of a man who could boast that he had never dreamt anything nonsensical. In the case of this man, no dream distortion occurred. Popper allowed the man complete insight into the reasons for his peculiarity. Distortion was a compromise, something in its very nature disingenuous, the product of a conflict between thought and feeling. Where a conflict of this kind was not present and repression was unnecessary, dreams could not be strange or senseless. The man who dreamed in a way no different from that in which he thought while awake was granted by Popper the very condition of internal harmony which, as a social reformer, he aimed at producing in the body politic.

1933C 22/227
Sandor Ferenczi (1933).
Sandor Ferenczi was born on July 16, 1873, and died on May 22, 1933. Since the days when he was led to Freud by his interest in psychoanalysis, still in its youth, they shared many things with each other. Ten years earlier, when the Internationale Zeitschnft dedicated a special number to Ferenczi on his fiftieth birthday, he had already published most of the works which have made all analysts into his pupils. But he was holding back his most brilliant and most fertile achievement. In 1924, his Versuch emer Genitaitheorie appeared. This little book is a biological rather than a psychoanalytic study; it is an application of the attitudes and insights associated with psychoanalysis to the biology of the sexual processes and, beyond them, to organic life in general. As its governing thought it lays stress on the conservative nature of the instincts, which seek to reestablish every state of things that has been abandoned owing to an external interference. Symbols are recognized as evidence of ancient connections. Later, the need to cure and to help had become paramount in him. From unexhausted springs of emotion the conviction was held that one could effect far more with one’s patients if one gave them enough of the love which they had longed for as children.

1935B 22/233
The subtleties of a faulty action (1935).
The subtleties of a faulty action are discussed. Freud was preparing a birthday present for a woman friend, a small engraved gem for insertion into a ring. It was fixed in the center of a piece of stout cardboard and on this, Freud wrote the following words: “Voucher for the supply by Messrs. L., jewelers, of a gold ring for the attached stone bearing an engraved ship with sail and oars.” But at the point where there is a gap, between ring” and “for,” there stood a word which Freud was obliged to cross out since it was entirely irrelevant. It was the little German word “bis,” meaning “until” and meaning “twice” or “for a second time” in Latin. At first, Freud was pacified with the explanation that he objected unconsciously to using “for” twice in the same sentence, until his daughter reminded him that he had given his friend a similar stone for a ring on a previous occasion. The objection, therefore, was to a repetition of the same present, the ring, not of the same word, “for.” There had been a displacement on to something trivial with the object of diverting attention from something more important: an esthetic difficulty, perhaps, in place of an instinctual conflict.

1936A 22/239
A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis (1936).
An open letter to Romain Rolland on the occasion of his seventieth birthday is presented. When Freud stood on the Acropolis and cast his eyes around upon the landscape, a surprising thought entered his mind: “So all this really does exist, just as we learned at school!” The whole psychical situation, which seemed so confused and is so difficult to describe, can be satisfactorily cleared up by assuming that at the time Freud had a momentary feeling: “‘What I see here is not real.” Such a feeling is known as a feeling of derealization. These derealizations are remarkable phenomena which are still little understood. They are spoken of as sensations, but they are obviously complicated processes, attached to particular mental contents and bound up with decisions made about those contents. There are two general characteristics of the phenomena of derealization. The first is that they all serve the purpose of defense; they aim at keeping something away from the ego, at disavowing it. The second is their dependence upon the past, upon the ego’s store of memories and upon earlier distressing experiences which have since, perhaps, fallen victim to repression.

1931F 22/251
Letter to Georg Fuchs (1931).
In reply to a request by Georg Fuchs, asking Freud to indorse his book Wir Zuchthaus/er(We Convicts), Freud stated that he could not subscribe to the assertion that the treatment of convicted prisoners is a disgrace to our civilization. On the contrary, it seems to be in perfect harmony with our civillzation, a necessary expression of the brutality and lack of understanding which dominate contemporary civilized humanity.

1936B 22/253
Preface to Richard Sterba’s ‘Dictionary of psychoanalysis’ (1936).
Freud wrote a preface to Richard Sterba’s Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. The Dictionary gives the impression of being a valuable aid to learners and of being a fine achievement on its own account. The precision and correctness of the individual entries is in fact of commendable excellence. English and French translations of the headings are not indispensable but would add further to the value of the work.

1933D 22/254
Preface to Marie Bonaparte’s ‘The life and works of Edgar Allan Poe: A psychoanalytic interpretation’ (1933).
Freud wrote a preface to Marie Bonaparte’s The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe: A Psychoanalytic Interpretation. Thanks to her interpretative efforts, we can now understand how much of the characteristics of Poe’s work were determined by their author’s special nature; but we also learn that this was itself the precipitate of powerful emotional ties and painful experiences in his early youth.

1935C 22/255
To Thomas Mann on his sixtieth birthday (1935).
In Freud’s letter to Thomas Mann on his sixtieth birthday he wrote that wishing is cheap and strikes him as a relapse to the days when people believed in the magical omnipotence of thoughts. In the name of a countless number of Mann’s contemporaries, Freud expressed their confidence that Mann will never do or say anything that is cowardly or base, for an author’s words are deeds.

Abstracts of the Standard Edition of 
the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud

Carrie Lee Rothgeb, Editor


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