Illuminate. Discover. Change.

Volume 18

Volume XVIII: 
Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Group Psychology and Other Works (1920-1922)

1920G 18/3
Beyond the pleasure principle (1920). Editor’s note. (1955).
Freud began working on a first draft of Beyond the Pleasure Principle in March, 1919, and he reported the draft as finished in the following May. The work was finally completed by the middle of July, 1920. In the series of Freud’s metapsychological writings, Beyond the Pleasure Principle may be regarded as introducing the final phase of his views. He had already drawn attention to the compulsion to repeat as a clinical phenomenon, but here he attributes to it the characteristics of an instinct; here too for the first time he brings forward the new dichotomy between Eros and the death instincts. The problem of destructiveness, which played an ever more prominent part in his theoretical works, makes its first explicit appearance.

1920G 18/7
Beyond the pleasure principle (1920).
Part I. Review of the pleasure principle.
Part II. Traumatic neurosis and children’s play are repetitions.
In the theory of psychoanalysis it is assumed that mental events are automatically regulated by the pleasure principle. The course of those events is invariably set in motion by an unpleasurable tension. The final outcome coincides with a lowering of that tension. The mental apparatus endeavors to keep the quantity of excitation present in it as low as possible. Under the influence of the ego’s instincts of self-preservation, the pleasure principle is replaced by the reality principle. Another occasion of the release of unpleasure is to be found in the conflicts and dissensions that take place in the mental apparatus while the ego is passing through its development into more highly composite organizations. Most of the unpleasure that we experience is perceptual unpleasure. The study of dreams may be considered the most trustworthy method of investigating deep mental processes. Dreams occurring in traumatic neuroses have the characteristic of repeatedly bringing the patient back into the situation of his accident, a situation from which he wakes up in another fright. A game that a 1 _-year-old child invented was related to the child’s great cultural achievement; the instinctual renunciation which he made in allowing his mother to go away without protesting. At the outset, he was in a passive situation; but, by repeating it, unpleasurable though it was, as a game, he took on an active part. There is no need to assume the existence of a special imitative instinct in order to provide a motive for play. It is concluded that even under the dominance of the pleasure principle, there are ways and means enough of making what is in itself unpleasurable into a subject to be recollected and worked over in the mind.

1920G 18/18
Beyond the pleasure principle (1919).
Part III. Transference neurosis is a repetition.
Psychoanalysis is first and foremost an art of interpreting. A further aim comes in view: to oblige the patient to confirm the analyst’s construction from his own memory. The chief emphasis lies upon the patient’s resistances: the art consists in uncovering these as quickly as possible, in pointing them out to the patient, and in inducing him to abandon his resistances. However, the patient cannot remember the whole of what is repressed in him, and what he cannot remember may be precisely the essential part of it. He is obliged to repeat the repressed material instead of remembering it as something belonging to the past. These reproductions always concern some portion of infantile sexual life. When things have reached this stage, it is said that the earlier neurosis has been replaced by a transference neurosis. The physician must get the patient to reexperience some portion of his forgotten life but he must see to it that the patient retains some degree of aloofness. The resistance of the conscious and unconscious ego operates under the sway of the pleasure principle: it seeks to avoid the unpleasure which would be produced by the liberation of the repressed. The early efflorescence of infantile sexual life is doomed to extinction because its wishes are incompatible with reality and with the inadequate stage of development which the child has reached. Patients repeat all of the unwanted situations and painful emotions in the transference and revive them with the greatest ingenuity. What psychoanalysis reveals in the transference phenomena of neurotics can also be observed in the lives of some normal people: those whose human relationships have the same outcome.

1920G 18/24
Beyond the pleasure principle (1920).
Part IV. Speculations on the death instinct.
Psychoanalytic speculation takes as its point of departure the impression that consciousness may be not the most universal attribute of mental processes, but only a particular function of them. What consciousness yields consists essentially of perceptions of excitations coming from the external world and of feelings of pleasure and unpleasure which arise from within the mental apparatus. The conscious system is characterized by the peculiarity that in it, excitatory processes do not leave behind any permanent change in its elements but expire in the phenomenon of becoming conscious. The living vesicle is provided with a shield against stimuli from the external world. The cortical layer next to that shield must be differentiated as an organ for receiving stimuli from without. This sensitivity cortex which later becomes the conscious system, also receives excitations from within. The unpleasure of physical pain is probably the result of the protective shield having been broken through. There is then a continuous stream of excitations from the part of the periphery concerned to the central apparatus of the mind, such as could normally arise only from within the apparatus. Cathectic energy is summoned from all sides to provide sufficiently high cathexes of energy in the environs of the breach. An anticathexis on a grand scale is set up and the other psychical systems are impoverished so that the remaining psychical functions are extensively paralyzed or reduced. The common traumatic neurosis is regarded as a consequence of an extensive breach being made in the protective shield against stimuli. Preparedness for anxiety and the hypercathexis of the receptive systems constitute the last line of defense of the shield against stimuli. Dreams endeavor to master the stimulus retrospectively, by developing the anxiety whose omission was the cause of the traumatic neurosis. An exception to the proposition that dreams are wish fulfillments is dreams occurring in traumatic neuroses; these arise in obedience to the compulsion to repeat. Thus it would seem that the function of dreams, which consists in setting aside any motives that might interrupt sleep, by fulfilling the wishes of disturbing impulses, is not their original function. If there is a ‘beyond the pleasure principle,’ then there was also a time before the purpose of dreams was the fulfillment of wishes.

1920G 18/34
Beyond the pleasure principle (1920).
Part V. Revision of the theory of instincts.
The fact that the cortical layer which receives stimuli is without any protective shield against excitations from within must have a~ its result that these latter transmissions of stimulus have a preponderance in economic importance and often occasion economic disturbances comparable with traumatic neuroses. The impulses arising from the instincts do not belong to the type of bound nervous processes but of freely mobile processes which press towards discharge. The manifestations of a compulsion to repeat (which is described as occurring in the early activities of infantile mental life as well as among the events of psychoanalytic treatment) exhibit to a high degree an instinctual character and, when they act in opposition to the pleasure principle, give the appearance of some demonic force at work. It seems that an instinct is an urge inherent in organic life to restore an earlier state of things which the living entity has been obliged to abandon under the pressure of external disturbing forces. The instincts which watch over the destinies of the elementary organisms that survive the whole individual which provide them with a safe shelter while they are defenseless against the stimuli of the external world, winch bring about their meeting with other germ cells, etc., constitute the group of the sexual instincts. These instincts are peculiarly conservative in their resistance to external influences and that they preserve life itself. Apart from the sexual instincts, there are no instincts that do not seek to restore an earlier state of things. Both higher development and involution might be the consequences of adaption to the pressure of external forces; and in both cases, the part played by instincts might be limited to the retention of an obligatory modification. What appears in a majority of individuals as an untiring impulsion towards perfection can be understood as a result of the instinctual repression upon which is based all that is most precious in human civilization. The repressed instinct never ceases to strive for complete satisfaction. It is concluded that there is no instinct towards perfection at work in human beings. The difference in the amount between the pleasure of satisfaction which is demanded and that which is actually achieved is what provides the driving factor.

192OG 18/44
Beyond the pleasure principle (1920).
Part VI. Biological arguments for death instincts.
Part VII. Summary.
The ego instincts exercise pressure towards death while the sexual instincts exercise pressure towards prolongation of life. It is hypothesized that the ego instincts arise from the coming to life of inanimate matter and seek to restore the inanimate while sexual instincts aim at conjugation of the germ cell. Without this union the cell dies. The assumption that death is internal (natural) is discussed. Biological experiments dealing with organisms such as ciliate infusorian give the following 2 facts: if 2 of the animalculae, at the moment before they show signs of senescence, are able to conjugate, they are saved from growing old and become rejuvenated. It is also probable that infusoria die a natural death as a result of their own vital processes. It is concluded that biology does not contradict the recognition of the death instincts. Psychoanalysis observed the regularity with which libido is withdrawn from the object and directed to the ego. By studying the libidinal development of children it was concluded that the ego is the true and original reservoir of libido, and that it is only from that reservoir that libido is extended onto objects. A portion of the ego instincts was seen to be libidinal and sexual instincts operated in the ego. Thus the distinction between these 2 instincts has changed from qualitative to topographical. We cannot ascribe to the sexual instinct the characteristic of a compulsion to repeat. The dominating tendency of mental life (and perhaps of nervous life) is the effort to reduce, keep constant, or remove internal tension due to stimuli, a tendency which finds expression in the pleasure principle; our recognition of this fact is a major reason for believing in the existence of death instincts. One of the earliest and most important functions of the mental apparatus is to bind the instinctual impulses which impinge it, to replace the primary process prevailing in them by the secondary process and convert their freely mobile cathectic energy into a mainly quiescent cathexis. The pleasure principle is a tendency operating in the service of a function to free the mental apparatus from excitation or to keep the amount of excitation in it constant or as low as possible. At the beginning of mental life the struggle for pleasure was far more intense than later but not so unrestricted.

1921C 18/67
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Editor’s note. (1955).
Freud’s letter showed that the first idea of an explanation of group psychology occurred to him during the spring of 1919. In February, 1920, he was working at the subject and he had written a first draft in August of the same year. It was not until February, 1921, however, that he began giving it its final form. There is little direct connection between this work and Beyond the Pleasure Principle. The trains of thought which Freud takes up in Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego are more especially derived from the fourth essay inTotem and Taboo and his papers on narcissism and Mourning and Melancholia. The work is important in 2 different directions. On the one hand it explains the psychology of groups on the basis of changes in the psychology of the individual mind. On the other hand it carries a stage further Freud’s investigation of the anatomical structure of the mind.

1921C 18/69
Group psychology and analysis of the ego (1921).
Part I: Introduction.
Individual psychology is concerned with the individual man and explores the paths by which he seeks to find satisfaction for his instinctual impulses. In the individual’s mental life someone else is invariably involved, as a model, as an object, as a helper, or as an opponent. The contrast between social and narcissistic mental acts falls wholly within the domain of individual psychology, and is not well calculated to differentiate it from a social or group psychology. The individual in the relations to his parents and to his brothers and sisters, to the person he is in love with, to his friend, and to his physician, comes under the influence of only a single person, or of a very small number of persons, each one of whom has become enormously important to him. Group psychology is concerned with the individual man as a member of a race, of a nation, of a caste, of a profession, or an institution, or as a component part of a crowd of people who have been organized into a group at some particular time for some definite purpose. Group psychology embraces an immense number of separate issues and offers to investigators countless problems which have hitherto not even been properly distinguished from one another.

1921C 18/72
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part II: Le Bon’s description of the group mind.
Le Bon’s description of the group mind is discussed. If the individuals in a group are combined into a unity, there must be something to unite them, and this bond might be precisely the thing that is characteristic of a group. Le Bon thinks that the particular acquirements of individuals become obliterated in a group, and that in this way their distinctiveness vanishes. The racial unconscious emerges; what is heterogenous is submerged in what is homogeneous. The mental superstructure, the development of which in individuals shows such dissimilarities, is removed, and the unconscious foundations, which are similar in everyone, stand exposed to view. In a group, the individual is brought under conditions which allow him to throw off the repressions of his unconscious instinctual impulses. The apparently new characteristics which he then displays are in fact the manifestations of this unconscious. Le Bon believes that the individuals in a group display new characteristics which they have not previously possessed. Three factors are put forth as reasons for this: 1) the individual forming part of a group acquires a sentiment of invincible power which allows him to yield to instincts which, had he been alone, he would perforce have kept under restraint; 2) contagion; and 3) suggestibility. A group is impulsive, changeable, and irritable. It is led almost exclusively by the unconscious. A group is credulous and open to influence, it has no critical faculty, and the improbable does not exist for it. A group is subject to the magical power of words. Groups have never thirsted after truth.

1921C 18/82
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part III: Other accounts of collective mental life.
The 2 theses which comprise the most important of Le Bon’s opinions, those touching upon the collective inhibition of intellectual functioning and the heightening of affectivity in groups, had been formulated shortly before by Sighele. However, the group mind is capable of creative genius in the field of intelligence, as is shown above all by language itself, as well as by folksong, folklore and the like. The most remarkable and also the most important result of the formation of a group is the exaltation or intensification of emotion produced in every member of it. In McDougall’s opinion, men 5 emotions are stirred in a group to a pitch that they seldom or never attain under other conditions. The manner in which individuals are carried away by a common impulse is by means of emotional contagion. A group impresses the individual as being an unlimited power and an insurmountable peril. Five principal conditions for raising collective mental life to a higher level are enumerated by McDougall. 1) There should be some degree of continuity of existence in the group. 2) In the individual member of the group, some definite idea should be formed of the nature, composition, functions and capacities of the group. 3) The group should be brought into interaction with other groups. 4) The group should possess traditions, customs and habits. 5) The group should have a definite structure.

1921C 18/88
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part IV: Suggestion and libido.
Suggestion and libido are investigated. An individual in a group is subject, through its influence, to what is often a profound alteration in his mental activity. Rational factors do not cover the observable phenomena. What is usually offered as an explanation is suggestion. Suggestion is actually an irreducible, primitive phenomenon, a fundamental fact in the mental life of man. An attempt at using the concept of libido is presented for the purpose of throwing light upon group psychology. Libido is an expression taken from the theory of the emotions. We call by that name the energy, regarded as a quantitative magnitude, of those instincts which have to do with all that may be comprised under the word love. Psychoanalysis gives these love instincts the name of sexual instincts. It is supposed that love relationships also constitute the essence of the group mind. A group is clearly held together by a power of some kind: to what power could this feat be better ascribed than to Eros? If an individual gives up his distinctiveness in a group and lets its other members influence him by suggestion, it gives one the impression that he does it because he feels the need of being in harmony with them rather than in opposition to them.

1921C 18/93
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part V: Two artificial groups. The church and the army.
Two artificial groups, the Church and the army, are examined. In a Church as well as in an army, however different the 2 may be in other respects, the same illusion holds good of there being a head who loves all the individuals in the group with an equal love. Everything depends upon this illusion. In these 2 artificial groups, each individual is bound by libidinal ties on the one hand to the leader (Christ, the Commander in Chief) and on the other hand to the other members of the group. The essence of a group lies in the libidinal ties existing in it. Panic arises if a group becomes disintegrated; the mutual ties have ceased to exist, and a gigantic and senseless fear is set free. Panic fear presupposes a relaxation in the libidinal structure of the group and reacts to that relaxation in a justifiable manner.

1921C 18/100
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part VI: Further problems and lines of work.
A mere collection of people is not a group. In any collection of people the tendency to form a psychological group may very easily come to the fore. The evidence of psychoanalysis shows that almost every intimate emotional relation between 2 people which lasts for some time contains a sediment of feelings of aversion and hostility, which only escapes perception as a result of repression. This is less disguised in the common wrangles between business partners or in the grumbles of a subordinate at his superior. In the undisguised antipathies and the aversions which people feel towards strangers, we may recognize the expression of self-love, of narcissism. This self-love works for the preservation of the individual. But when a group is formed, the whole of this intolerance vanishes, temporarily or permanently, within the group. The same thing occurs in men’s social relations as has become familiar to psychoanalytic research in the course of the development of the individual libido. The libido attaches itself to the satisfaction of the great vital needs, and chooses as its first objects the people who have a share in that process. If therefore in groups, narcissistic self-love is subject to limitations which do not operate outside them, that is cogent evidence that the essence of a group formation consists in new kinds of libidinal ties among the members of the group.

1921C 18/105
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part VII: Identification.
Identification is known to psychoanalysis as the earliest expression of an emotional tie with another person. It plays a part in the early history of the Oedipus complex. There are 3 sources of identification. First, identification is the original form of emotional ties with an object; secondly, in a regressive way it becomes a substitute for a libidinal object tie, as it were by means of introjection of the object into the ego, and thirdly, it may arise with any new perception of a common quality shared with some other person who is not an object of the sexual instinct. The mutual tie between members of a group is in the nature of an identification based upon an important emotional common quality.

1921C 18/111
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part VIII: Being in love and hypnosis.
Being in love is an object cathexis on the part of the sexual instincts with a view to sexual satisfaction, a cathexis which expires when this aim has been reached. The loved object enjoys a certain amount of freedom from criticism; all its characteristics are valued more highly than those of people who are not loved, or than its own were at a time when it itself was not loved. The tendency which falsifies judgment in this respect is that of idealization. Traits of humility, of the limitation of narcissism and of self injury occur in every case of being in love. This happens especially easily with love that is unhappy and cannot be satisfied; for in spite of everything each sexual satisfaction always involves a reduction in sexual overvaluation. Contemporaneously with this devotion of the ego to the object, the functions allotted to the ego ideal cease to operate. The object has been put in the place of an ego ideal. From being in love to hypnosis is only a short step. This is the same humble subjection, the same compliance, the same absence of criticism, towards the hypnotist as towards the love object. The hypnotic relation is a group formation with 2 members. A formula for the libidinal constitution of groups is presented: a primary group is a number of individuals who have put the same object in the place of their ego ideal and have consequently identified themselves with one another in their ego.

1921C 18/117
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part IX: The herd instinct.
The herd instinct is discussed. Trotter derives the mental phenomena that are described as occurring in groups from a herd instinct (gregariousness), which is innate in human beings just as in other species of animals. Biologically, he says, this gregariousness is an analogy to multicellularity and a continuation of it. In terms of the libido theory, it is a further manifestation of the tendency which proceeds from the libido and which is felt by all living beings of the same kind, to combine in more and more comprehensive units. Trotter gives, as the list of instincts which he considers as primary, those of self-preservation, of nutrition, of sex, and of the herd. Social feeling is based upon the reversal of what was first a hostile feeling into a positively toned tie in the nature of an identification. The demand for equality in a group applies only to its members and not to the leader. All the members must be equal to one another, but they all want to be ruled by one person. Freud concludes that man is not a herd animal, but rather, he is a horde animal, an individual creature in a horde led by a chief.

1921C 18/122
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part X: The group and the primal horde
Human groups exhibit the picture of an individual of superior strength among a troop of equal companions, a picture which is also contained in the idea of the primal horde. The psychology of such a group, the dwindling of the conscious individual personality, the focusing of thoughts and feelings into a common direction, the predominance of the affective side of the mind and of unconscious psychical life, the tendency to the immediate carrying out of intentions as they emerge, corresponds to a state of regression to a primitive mental activity, of just such a sort as is ascribed to the primal horde. The primal father prevented his sons from satisfying their directly sexual impulsions; he forced them into abstinence and consequently into the emotional ties with him and with one another. Whoever became his successor was given the possibility of sexual satisfaction. The fixation of the libido to woman and the possibility of satisfaction without any need for delay or accumulation made an end of the importance of those of his sexual impulsions that were inhibited in their aim, and allowed his narcissism always to rise to its full height. The uncanny and coercive characteristics of group formations, which are shown in the phenomena of suggestion that accompany them, may be traced back to the fact of their origin from the primal horde. The leader of the group is still the dreaded primal father; the group still wishes to be governed by unrestricted force; it has an extreme passion for authority.

1921C 18/129
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part XI: A differentiating grade in the ego.
Each individual is a component part of numerous groups; he is bound by ties of identification in many directions, and he has built up his ego ideal upon the most various models. Each individual therefore has a share in numerous group minds and he can also raise himself above them to the extent of having a scrap of independence and originality. In many individuals, the separation between the ego and the ego ideal is not very far advanced; the 2 still coincide readily; the ego has often preserved its earlier narcissistic self-complacency. There are people, the general color of whose mood oscillates periodically from an excessive depression through some kind of intermediate state to an exalted sense of well-being. The foundation of these spontaneous oscillations of mood is unknown. In cases of mania, the ego and the ego ideal have fused together, so that the person, in a mood of triumph and self-satisfaction, disturbed by no self-criticism, can enjoy the abolition of his inhibitions, his feelings of consideration for others, and his self-reproaches.

1921C 18/134
Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (1921).
Part XII: Postscript.
The distinction between identification of the ego with an object and replacement of the ego ideal by an object finds an illustration in 2 artificial groups, the army and the Christian Church. A soldier takes his superior as his ideal, while he identifies himself with his equals. The Church requires that the position of the libido, which is given by group formation, should be supplemented. The development of the libido in children has made us acquainted with the first example of sexual instincts which are inhibited in their aims. The first configuration of the child’s love, which in typical cases takes the shape of the Oedipus complex, succumbs from the beginning of the period of latency onwards to a wave of repression. Sexual impulsions that are inhibited in their aims arise out of the directly sexual ones when internal or external obstacles make the sexual aims unattainable. In the history of the development of the family there have been group relations of sexual love; but the more important sexual love became for the ego, and the more it developed the characteristics of being in love, the more it required to be limited to 2 people. Being in love is based on the simultaneous presence of directly sexual impulsions and of sexual impulsions that are inhibited in their aims, while the object draws a part of the subject’s narcissistic ego libido to itself. Hypnosis resembles being in love in being limited to 2 persons. The group multiples this process. Neurosis stands outside this series.

1920A 18/146
The psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman (1920). Part I.
Homosexuality in women has not only been ignored by the law, but has also been neglected by psychoanalytic research. A single case is presented and discussed. A beautiful and clever girl of 18, belonging to a family of good standing, had aroused displeasure and concern in her parents by the devoted adoration with which she pursued a certain society lady who was about 10 years older than herself. It was well known that this lady lived with a friend, a married woman, and had intimate relations with her, while at the same time she carried on promiscuous affairs with a number of men. The girl appeared in the most frequented streets in the company of her undesirable friend, being thus quite neglectful of her own reputation. However, she disdained no means of deception, no excuses and no lies that would make meetings with her possible and cover them. About 6 months after she attempted to commit suicide, her parents sought medical advice. There was something about the daughter’s homosexuality that aroused the deepest bitterness in the father, and he was determined to combat it with all the means in his power. The mother did not take her daughter’s infatuation so tragically as did the father, nor was she so incensed at it. The girl was not in any way ill. The patient had not enjoyed anything beyond a few kisses and embraces with the object of her adoration; her genital chastity had remained intact. There was no obvious deviation from the feminine physical type, nor any menstrual disturbance.

1920A 18/155
The psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman (1920). Part II.
A case of homosexuality in a woman is presented. In childhood the girl had passed through the normal attitude characteristic of the feminine, she did not remember any sexual traumas in early life, nor were any discovered by the analysis. During the prepubertal years at school she gradually became acquainted with the facts of sex, and she received this knowledge with mixed feelings of lasciviousness and frightened aversion, in a way which may be normal. At the age of 13 and 14 she displayed a tender and, according to general opinion, exaggerated affection for a small boy, not quite 3 years old, whom she used to see regularly in a children’s playground. After a short time she grew indifferent to the boy, and began to take an interest in mature, but still youthful, women. The manifestations of this interest soon brought upon her a severe chastisement at the hands of her father. The birth of a third brother when she was about 16 was a significant event. Just when the girl was experiencing the revival of her infantile Oedipus complex at puberty she became conscious of the wish to have a male child (unconscious was the wish for her father’s child, in his image). Because she did not bear the child, and her unconsciously hated rival, her mother, did bear a child, the patient became resentful and embittered and turned away from her father and from men altogether. Before it happened her libido was concentrated on a maternal attitude, while afterwards she became a homosexual attracted to mature women, and remained so ever since. This libidinal position of the girl’s was greatly reinforced as soon as she perceived how much it displeased her father. The girl’s inversion received its final reinforcement when she found in her lady an object which promised to satisfy not only her homosexual trends, but also that part of her heterosexual libido which was still attached to her brother.

1920A 18/160
The psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman (1920). Part III.
A case of homosexuality in a woman is presented. In her behavior to her adored lady, the girl adopted the characteristic masculine type of love. When the girl learned later that her adored lady lived simply by giving her bodily favors, her reaction took the form of great compassion and of phantasies and plans for rescuing her beloved from these ignoble circumstances. She attempted suicide after her father saw them together and her beloved wanted to end the affair. The attempted suicide was the fulfillment of a punishment, and the fulfillment of a wish. She transferred to Freud the sweeping repudiation of men which had dominated her ever since the disappointment she had suffered from her father. The affective factor of revenge against her father made her cool reserve possible. The 2 intentions, to betray and to please her father, originated in the same complex, the former resulted from the repression of the latter, and the latter one was brought back by the dream work to the earlier one.

1920A 18/167
The psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman (1920). Part IV.
Freud does not maintain that every girl who experiences a disappointment such as that of the longing for love that springs from the Oedipus attitude at puberty will, necessarily on that account, fall a victim to homosexuality. Even in a normal person it takes a certain time before the decision in regard to the sex of the love object is finally made. Homosexual enthusiasms, exaggerated strong friendships tinged with sensuality, are common enough in both sexes during the first years after puberty. The analysis showed that the girl had brought along with her from her childhood a strongly masked masculinity complex. It is concluded that this is a case of congenital homosexuality which became fixed and unmistakably manifest only in the period following puberty. Mental sexual character and object choice do not necessarily coincide. The mystery of homosexuality is a question of 3 sets of characteristics: physical sexual characters (physical hermaphroditism), mental sexual characters (masculine or feminine attitude), and kind of object choice.

1941D 18/175
Psycho-analysis and telepathy (1941; 1921). Editor’s note (1955) and introduction.
Psychoanalysis and Telepathy is the first of Freud’s papers on telepathy, but was never published in his lifetime, though the greater part of the material in it was included in various forms in his later published papers on the subject. It does not follow that an intensified interest in occultism must involve a danger to psychoanalysis. The immense majority of occultists are not driven by a desire for knowledge or by a sense of shame that science has so long refused to take cognizance of what are indisputable problems or by a desire to conquer this new sphere of phenomena. They are convinced believers who are looking for confirmation and for something that will justify them in openly confessing their faith. There is little doubt that if attention is directed to occult phenomena the outcome will very soon be that the occurrence of a number of them will be confirmed; and it will probably be a very long time before an acceptable theory covering these new facts can be arrived at. At the very first confirmation, the occultists will proclaim the triumph of their views.

1941D 18/181
Psychoanalysis and telepathy (1941; 1921). Parts I & II.
Three examples of telepathy are presented and discussed. A young man going through analysis told Freud that a fortune teller told him that his brother-in-law would die of crayfish or oyster poisoning in July or August. His brother-in-law did not die but was very seriously ill at that time from crayfish poisoning. This is interpreted as the communication (thought transference) of an unconscious, repressed death wish against his brother-in4aw to the fortune teller. The second case concerns the eldest girl of a family of 5 who married well but had no children. Because of the lack of children due to her husband’s inability to produce them, she became depressed and was hospitalized. After 10 years of illness, she was treated by Freud at which time she related that at the age of 27, she removed her wedding ring, placed her hand down in a plate of sand, and had a fortune teller announce that she would be married and have 2 children by the age of 32. She was now 40 years old and had no children. The patient’s mother had not married till she was 30 and, in her thirty-second year, she gave birth to 2 children. The third episode discussed a graphologist, Rafael Schermann. The phenomenon of thought transference occurred between the graphologist and one of Freud’s patients who eventually broke off an affair he was having and married a girl of whom Schermann approved.

1922A 18/196
Dreams and telepathy (1922). Editor’s note (1955) and introduction.
The relation of the telepathic occurrences to dreams, or more exactly, to the theory of dreams, is presented. Freud maintains that the 2 have little to do with each other, and that if the existence of telepathic dreams were to be established there would be no need to alter the conception of dreams in any way. The material on which the communication is based is very slight. During some 27 years as an analyst, Freud had never been in a position to observe a truly telepathic dream of any of his patients.

1922A 18/200
Dreams and telepathy (1922). Part I.
Dreams and telepathy are discussed. One of Freud’s patients dreamed that his wife had twins. His daughter was pregnant but she was not expecting her confinement for 4 weeks. The next day, he received a telegram from his son-in-law that his daughter had had twins. The dream goes into great detail of the likeness of the children to the parents, discusses the color of their hair and the probable change of color at a later age. In the dream the dreamer’s second wife had twins. The occurrence, however, was that his daughter had given birth to twins in the distant home. If we consult the associative material to this dream, it shows, in spite of its sparseness, that an intimate bond of feeling existed between the father and daughter, a bond of feeling which is so usual and so natural that we ought to cease to be ashamed of it, one that in daily life merely finds expression as a tender interest and is only pushed to its logical conclusion in dreams. Two conceptions of the dream are presented. According to the first, the dream is a reaction to a telepathic message: ‘your daughter has just brought twins into the world.’ According to the second an unconscious process of thought underlies the dream, which may be reproduced somewhat as follows: ‘Today is the day the confinement should take place if the young people in Berlin are really out in their reckoning by a month, as I suspect. And if my first wife were still alive, she certainly would not be content with 1 grandchild. To please her there would have to be at least twins. All dreams come from within, are products of our mental life, whereas the very conception of the purely ‘telepathic dream’ lies in its being a perception of something external, in relation to which the mind remains passive and receptive.

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Dreams and telepathy (1922). Part II.
The second case concerning the relationship between dreams and telepathy is not a telepathic dream, but a dream that has recurred from childhood onwards, in a person who has had many telepathic experiences. In the recurrent dreams, the dreamer saw a tongue of land surrounded by water. The waves were being driven forward and then back by the breakers. On this piece of land stood a palm tree, bent somewhat towards the water. A woman had her arm wound round the stem of the palm and was bending low towards the water, where a man was trying to reach the shore. At last she lay down on the ground, held tightly to the palm tree with her left hand and stretched out her right hand as far as she could towards the man in the water, but without reaching him. The dream is a rescuing from water, a typical birth dream. The tree trunk is a phallic symbol. The man’s face remained hidden. It must have been her father. The instances of telepathic messages belonged to the sphere of the Oedipus complex. Telepathy has no relation to the essential nature of dreams. It is an incontestable fact that sleep creates favorable conditions for telepathy. Just as sleep is not indispensable to the occurrence of telepathic messages, dream formation does not necessarily wait for the onset of sleep before it begins. If the phenomenon of telepathy is only an activity of the unconscious mind, the laws of unconscious mental life may then apply to this telepathy.

1922B 18/221
Some neurotic mechanisms in jealousy, paranoia and homosexuality (1922).
Jealousy is an affective state, like grief, that may be described as normal. There are 3 layers or grades of jealousy: competitive or normal, projected, and delusional jealousy. Normal jealousy is compounded of grief, the pain caused by the thought of losing the loved object, and of the narcissistic wound, in so far as this is distinguishable from the other wound. Projected jealousy is derived in both men and women either from their own actual unfaithfulness in real life or from impulses towards it which have succumbed to repression. Delusional jealousy has its origin in repressed impulses towards unfaithfulness; but the object in these cases is of the same sex as the subject. Cases of paranoia are not usually amenable to analytic investigation. A case of paranoia was presented that was of a youngish man with a fully developed paranoia of jealousy, the object of which was his impeccably faithful wife. After he broke up an affair he had been having, his projected jealousy broke out. Since in paranoia it is precisely the most loved person of the same sex that becomes the persecutor, this reversal of affect takes its origin from the ambivalence of feeling while the nonfulfillment of this claim for love strengthens it. This ambivalence thus serves the same purpose for the persecuted paranoiac as jealousy in the patient, that of a defense against homosexuality. The whole of the patient’s youth was governed by a strong attachment to his mother of whom he was her favorite son. Another case of persecutory paranoia was presented in which the patient was both a rebel and a submissive son. After his father’s death he denied himself enjoyment of woman out of guilt. His actual relations with other men were clearly dominated by suspiciouness. The qualitative factor, the presence of certain neurotic formations, has less practical significance than the quantitative factor, the degree of attention or, the amount of cathexis that these structures are able to attract to themselves. The typical process of homosexuality is that a few years after the termination of puberty a young man, who has hitherto been strongly fixated to his mother, changes his attitude; identifies with his mother and looks for love objects in whom he can rediscover himself, and whom he might love as his mother loved him. The choice is towards a narcissistic object which is readier to hand and easier to put into effect than movement towards the opposite sex. Another mechanism of homosexual object choice, its origin in male sibling rivalry, is discussed.

1923A 18/234
Two encyclopedia articles (1923).
(A). Psycho-analysis.
The following 29 topics pertaining to psychoanalysis are summarized: history of psychoanalysis; catharsis; the transition to psychoanalysis (from belief in hypnoid states to repression and defense); abandonment of hypnosis; free association; the ‘Fundamental Technical Rule’ (in which the patient is required to put himself in the position of an attentive and dispassionate self-observed, to read off the surface of his consciousness, and to make a duty of complete honesty while not holding back any idea from communication); psychoanalysis as an interpretative art; the interpretation of parapraxes and haphazard acts; the interpretation of dreams; the dynamic theory of dream formation (involving wish fulfillment); symbolism; the etiological significance of sexual life; infantile sexuality; the development of the libido; the process of finding an object, and the Oedipus Complex; the diphasic onset of sexual development; the theory of repression; transference; the cornerstones of psychoanalytic theory; later history of psychoanalysis; more recent advances in psychoanalysis; narcissism; development of technique; psychoanalysis as the therapeutic procedure; comparison between psychoanalysis and hypnotic and suggestive methods; the relation of psychoanalysis to psychiatry; criticisms and misunderstandings of psychoanalysis; the nonmedical applications and correlations of psychoanalysis; and psychoanalysis as an empirical science.

1923A 18/255
Two encyclopedia articles (1923).
(B). The libido theory.
Libido is a term used in the theory of the instincts for describing the dynamic manifestation of sexuality. The first sphere of phenomena to be studied by psychoanalysis comprised what are known as the transference neuroses. It was found that their symptoms came about by sexual instinctual impulses being rejected by the subject’s personality (his ego) and then finding expression by circuitous paths through the unconscious. What is described as the sexual instinct turns out to be of a highly composite nature and is liable to disintegrate once more into its component instincts. Each component instinct is unalterably characterized by its source, that is, by the region or zone of the body from which its excitation is derived. The pathogenic process in schizophrenia (dementia praecox) is the withdrawal of the libido from objects and its introduction into the ego, while the clamorous symptoms of the disease arise from the vain struggles of the libido to find a pathway back to objects. Instincts are characterized as tendencies inherent in living substance towards restoring an earlier state of things. Both classes of instincts, Eros as well as the death of instinct, have been in operation and working against each other from the first origin of life.

1920B 18/263
A note on the prehistory of the technique of analysis (1920).
A book by Havelock Ellis which bears the title of The Philosophy of Conflict includes an essay on “Psycho-analysis in Relation to Sex.” The aim of this essay is to show that the writings of the creator of analysis should be judged not as a piece of scientific work but as an artistic production. Havelock Ellis’s wide reading enabled him to bring forward an author who practiced and recommended free association as a technique, though for purposes other than Freud’s, and thus has a claim to be regarded as a forerunner of psychoanalysis. In 1857, Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson published a volume of mystic doggerel verse written by what he considered a new method, the method of impression. A theme was chosen and everything that thereafter impressed the mind was written down. In Schiller’s correspondence with Korner, the great poet and thinker recommended anyone who desires to be productive to adopt the method of free association. Dr. Hugo Dubowitz drew Dr. Ferenczi’s attention to a short essay covering only 4-1/2 pages by Ludwig Borne. The essay advises to take a few sheets of paper and for 3 days, write down, without fabrication or hypocrisy, everything that comes into your head. When 3 days have passed you will be quite out of your senses with astonishment at the new and unheard of thoughts you have had. Freud had been greatly influenced by Borne’s work from the age of 14 on.

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Associations of a four-year-old child (1920).
The associations of a 4-year-old child are presented. The child said that if Emily gets married, she’ll have a baby. She knows that when anyone gets married, a baby always comes. The girl said that she knows a lot besides. She knows that trees grow in the ground and that God made the world. What the girl was trying to say was that babies grow inside their mother. She symbolically replaced the mother to Mother Earth. In her last remark she replaced the direct thought that it’s all the work of the father by the appropriate sublimation, that God makes the world.

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Dr. Anton von Freund (1920).
Dr. Anton von Freund, who was General Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association since the Budapest Congress in September 1918, died on January 20, 1920, in a Vienna sanatorium, a few days after completing his fortieth year. He used his material powers to assist others and to soften the hardness of their destiny as well as to sharpen in all directions the sense of social justice. When, during his last years, he came to know psychoanalysis, it seemed to him to promise the fulfillment of his 2 great wishes. He set himself the task of helping the masses by psychoanalysis and of making use of the therapeutic effects of that medical technique in order to mitigate the neurotic suffering of the poor. With the concurrence of Dr. Stephan von Barczy, the then Burgomaster, he assigned a sum of money for the foundation of a psychoanalytic institute in Budapest, in which analysis was to be practiced, taught, and made accessible to the people. It was intended to train a considerable number of physicians in this Institute who would receive an honorarium from it for the treatment of poor neurotics in an outpatient clinic. The Institute, furthermore, was to be a center for further scientific research in analysis. Von Freund’s premature death has put an end to these philanthropic schemes, with all their scientific hopes.

1921A 18/269
Preface to J. J. Putnam’s ‘Addresses on psychoanalysis’ (1921).
The preface to J. J. Putnam’s Addresses on Psychoanalysis is presented. Professor Putnam, who died in 1918 at the age of 72, was not only the first American to interest himself in psychoanalysis, but soon became its most decided supporter and its most influential representative in America. The papers that are collected into a single volume were written by Putnam between 1909 and the end of his life. They give a good picture of his relations to psychoanalysis. They show how he was at first occupied in correcting a provisional judgment which was based on insufficient knowledge; how he then accepted the essence of analysis, recognized its capacity for throwing a clear light upon the origin of human imperfections and failings, and how he was struck by the prospect of contributing towards the improvement of humanity along analytical lines.

1921B 18/271
Introduction to J. Varendonck’s ‘The psychology of day-dreams’ (1921).
The Introduction to J. Varendonck’s The Psychology of Day Dreams is presented. Varendonck has succeeded in getting hold of the mode of thought activity to which one abandons oneself during the state of distraction into which we readily pass before sleep or upon incomplete awakening. The author includes the sort of thought activity which he has observed in Bleuler’s autistic thinking, but calls it, as a rule fore – conscious thinking. However, the autistic thinking of Bleuler does not, by any means, correspond with the extension and the contents of the fore – conscious. Daydreaming does not owe its peculiarities to the circumstances that it proceeds mostly fore – consciously. Even strictly directed reflection may be achieved without the cooperation of consciousness. The daydream, as well as the chains of thought studied by Varendonek, should be designated as freely wandering or phantastic thinking, in opposition to intentionally directed reflection.

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Medusa’s Head (1940; 1922).
An interpretation of the decapitated head of Medusa is presented. To decapitate is synonymous with to castrate. The terror of Medusa is thus a terror of castration that is linked to the sight of something. The hair upon Medusa’s head is frequently represented in works of art in the form of snakes, and these are derived from the castration complex. However frightening they may be in themselves, they serve as a mitigation of the horror, for they replace the penis, the absence of which is the cause of the horror. If Medusa’s head takes the place of a representation of the female genitals, or rather if it isolates their horrifying effects from their pleasure-giving ones, it may be recalled that displaying the genitals is familiar in other connections as an apotropaic act. The erect male organ also has an apotropaic effect.

Abstracts of the Standard Edition of 
the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud

Carrie Lee Rothgeb, Editor


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