General preface (1966).
The aim of this work is to include the whole of Freud’s published psychological writings in The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (the Standard Edition). The Standard Edition does not include Freud’s correspondence. Nor, again, does the Standard Edition contain any reports or abstracts, published in contemporary periodicals, of the many lectures and papers given by Freud in his early days at meetings of various medical societies in Vienna. The whole contents of the Gesammelte Werke appear in the Standard Edition. In general, each volume contains all the works belonging to a specified span of years. The translations are based on the last German editions published in Freud’s lifetime. This edition was framed with the serious student in mind. The commentaries in the Standard Edition are of various kinds. First, there are the purely textual notes. Next come elucidations of Freud’s very numerous historical and local allusions and literary quotations. Another class of annotations is constituted by the cross references. Lastly, and more rarely, there are notes explanatory of Freud’s remarks. Each separate work is provided with an introductory note. The rule of uniform translation is used and is extended to phrases and to whole passages. Some technical terms, whose translation call for comment, are presented.
Report on Freud’s studies in Paris and Berlin (1886).
A report by Freud on some activities in Paris and Berlin is presented. The Salpetriere, in Paris, was converted into a home for aged women and provided a refuge for 5000 persons. Chronic nervous diseases appeared with particular frequency. A clinical section was opened in which both male and female patients were admitted for treatment. In his study of hysteria, Charcot, holder of a Chair of Neuropathology at the Salpetriere, started out from the most fully developed cases. He began by reducing the connection of the neurosis with the genital system to its correct proportions by demonstrating the unsuspected frequency of cases of male hysteria and especially of traumatic hysteria. In these typical cases, he next found a number of somatic signs which enabled him to establish the diagnosis of hysteria with certainty on the basis of positive indications. By making a scientific study of hypnotism, a region of neuropathology which had to be wrung on the one side of scepticism and on the other from fraud, he himself arrived at a kind of theory of hysterical symptomatology. By his efforts, hysteria was lifted out of the chaos of the neuroses and was differentiated from other conditions with a similar appearance. In Berlin, there was ample opportunity for examining children suffering from nervous diseases in the outpatient clinics.
Preface to the translation of Charcot’s lectures on the diseases of the nervous system (1886)
By the winter of 1885, Professor Charcot was no longer studying nervous diseases that were based on organic changes and was devoting himself exclusively to research into the neuroses, and particularly hysteria. Charcot gave his permission to have a German translation made of his lectures by Freud. The core of his book of translated lectures lies in the masterly and fundamental lectures on hysteria, which, along with their author, were expected to open a new epoch in the estimation of this little known and, instead, much maligned neurosis.
Observation of a severe case of hemianaesthesia in a hysterical male (1886).
The observation by Freud of a severe case of hemianaesthesia in a hysterical male is presented. The patient is a 29.year-old engraver; an intelligent man, who readily offered himself for examination in the hope of an early recovery. The patient developed normally in his childhood. At the age of 8, he was run over in the street. This resulted in a slight hearing loss. His present illness dated back for some 3 years. At that time he fell into a dispute with his dissolute brother, who refused to pay him back a sum of money. His brother threatened to stab him and ran at him with a knife. This threw the patient into indescribable fear. He ran home and remained unconscious for about 2 hours. The feeling in the left half of his body seemed altered, and his eyes got easily tired at his work. With a few oscillations, his condition remained like this for 3 years, until 7 weeks ago, a fresh agitation brought on a change for the worse. The patient was accused by a woman of a theft, had violent palpitations, was so depressed for about a fortnight that he thought of suicide, and at the same time a fairly severe tremor set in his left extremities. The only sense that was not diminished on the left side was hearing. The anaesthesia was also present in the left arm, trunk, and leg. His reflexes were brisker than normal, and showed little consistency with one another. In accordance with a hysterical hemianaesthesia, the patient exhibited both spontaneously and on pressure, painful areas on what was otherwise the insensitive side of his body, what are known as hysterogenic zones, though in this case their connection with the provoking of attacks was not marked. The right side of the body was not free from anaesthesia, though this was not of a high degree and seemed to affect only the skin.
Two short reviews. Averbeck’s Acute Neurasthenia and Weir Mitchell’s Neurasthenia and Hysteria (1887).
A review by Freud of Averbeck’s Die Akute Neurasthenia is presented. Neurasthenia may be described as the commonest of all the diseases in the society: it complicates and aggravates most other clinical pictures in patients of the better classes and it is either still quite unknown to the many scientifically educated physicians or is regarded by them as no more than a modern name with an arbitrarily compounded content. Neurasthenia is not a clinical picture in the sense of textbooks based too exclusively on pathological anatomy: it should rather be described as a mode of reaction of the nervous system. A review of Weir Mitchell’s Die Behandlung Gewisser Formen von Neurasthenie und Hysterie is presented. The therapeutic procedure proposed by Weir Mitchell was first recommended in Germany by Burkart and has been given full recognition during the last year in a lecture by Leyden. This procedure, by a combination of rest in bed, isolation, feeding up, massage and electricity in a strictly regulated manner, overcomes severe and long established states of nervous exhaustion.
The name hysteria originates from the earliest times of medicine and is a precipitate of the prejudice which links neuroses with diseases of the female sexual apparatus. Hysteria is a neurosis in the strictest sense of the word. Hysteria is fundamentally different from neurasthenia and is contrary to it. The symptomatology of major hysteria is composed of a series of symptoms which include the following: convulsive attacks, hysterogenic zones, disturbances of sensibility, disturbances of sensory activity, paralyses, and contractures. The symptomatology of hysteria has a number of general characteristics. Hysterical manifestations have the characteristic of being excessive. At the same time, any particular symptom can occur in isolation: anesthesia and paralysis are not accompanied by the general phenomena which, in the case of organic lesions, give evidence of a cerebral affection and which as a rule by their importance put the localizing symptoms in the shade. It is especially characteristic of hysteria for a disorder to be at the same time most highly developed and most sharply limited. Furthermore, hysterical symptoms shift in a manner which from the outset excludes any suspicion of a material lesion. In addition to the physical symptoms of hysteria, a number of psychical disturbances are observed. These are changes in the passage and in the association of ideas, inhibitions of the activity of the will, magnification and suppression of feelings, etc. Hysteria represents a constitutional anomaly rather than a circumscribed illness. First signs of it are probably exhibited in early youth. Hysteria may be combined with many other neurotic and organic nervous diseases, and such cases offer great difficulties to analysis. From the standpoint of treatment, 3 tasks must be separated: the treatment of the hysterical disposition, of hysterical outbreaks, and of individual hysterical symptoms.
Papers on hypnotism and suggestion (Editor’s Introduction) (1966)
After Freud’s return to Vienna from Paris in 1886, he devoted much of his attention for some years to a study of hypnotism and suggestion. Freud had extensive clinical experience with hypnotism. while he was still a student he attended a public exhibition given by Hansen the magnetist and was convinced of the genuineness of the phenomena of hypnosis. After settling in Vienna as a nerve specialist, he made attempts at using various procedures, such as electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, and rest cures, for treating the neuroses, but fell back in the end on hypnotism. He soon stopped using hypnotism; however, his interest in the theory of hypnotism and suggestion lasted longer than his use of hypnotism. In spite of his early abandonment of hypnosis as a therapeutic procedure, Freud never hesitated throughout his life to express his sense of gratitude to it.
Preface to the translation of Bernheim’s suggestion (1888).
The work of Dr. Bernheim of Nancy provides an admirable introduction to the study of hypnotism. The achievement of Bernheim consists in stripping the manifestations of hypnotism of their strangeness by linking them up with familiar phenomena of normal psychological life and of sleep. The subject of hypnotism has had a most unfavorable reception among the leaders of German medical science. The prevalent view doubted the reality of hypnotic phenomena and sought to explain the accounts given of them as due to a combination of credulity on the part of the observers and of simulation on the part of the subjects of the experiments. Another line of argument hostile to hypnosis rejects it as being dangerous to the mental health of the subject and labels it as an experimentally produced psychosis. Bernheim’s book, Hypnotism and Suggestion discusses another question, which divides the supporters of hypnotism into 2 opposing camps. One party, whose opinions are voiced by Dr. Bernheim, maintains that all the phenomena of hypnotism have the same origin; they arise, that is, from a suggestion, a conscious idea, which has been introduced into the brain of the hypnotized person by an external influence and has been accepted by him as though it has arisen spontaneously. On this view all hypnotic manifestations would be psychical phenomena, effects of suggestions. The other party, on the contrary, stand by the view that the mechanism of some at least of the manifestations of hypnotism is based upon physiological changes occurring without the participation of those parts of it which operate with consciousness; they speak, therefore, of the physical or physiological phenomena of hypnosis. Hypnosis, whether it is produced in the one way or in the other, is always the same and shows the same appearances.
Review of August Forel’s hypnotism (1889).
Forel’s Hypnotism, Its Significance, and Its Management is concise, expressed with great clarity and decisiveness, and covers the whole field of phenomena and problems which are comprised under the heading of the theory of hypnotism. In the opening sections of his book Forel endeavors so far as possible to distinguish among facts, theories, concepts, and terminology. The main fact of hypnotism lies in the possibility of putting a person into a particular condition of mind which resembles sleep. This condition is known as hypnosis. A second set of facts lies in the manner in which this condition is brought about (and ended). A third set of facts concerns the performances of the hypnotized person. Further unquestionable facts are the dependence of the hypnotized subject’s mental activity on that of the hypnotist and the production of what are known as posthypnotic effects in the former. Three fundamentally different theories have been set up to explain the phenomena of hypnosis. The oldest of these supposes that, in the act of hypnotizing, an imponderable material passes over from the hypnotist into the hypnotized organism (magnetism). A second, somatic, theory explains hypnotic phenomena on the pattern of spinal reflexes; it regards hypnosis as a physiologically altered condition of the nervous system brought about by external stimuli. Forel takes his stand on a third theory. According to this, all the phenomena of hypnosis are psychical effects, effects of ideas which are provoked in the hypnotized subject either intentionally or not. The second section of the book deals with suggestion and covers the whole field of the psychical phenomena that have been observed in subjects under hypnosis. A section on the forensic significance of suggestion concludes the volume.
The technique of hypnotizing is just as difficult a medical procedure as any other. Hypnotic treatment should not be applied to symptoms which have an organic basis and should be reserved only for purely functional, nervous disorders, for ailments of psychical origin, and for toxic as well as other addictions. It is valuable for the patient who is to be hypnotized to see other people under hypnosis, to learn by imitation how he is to behave, and to learn from others the nature of the sensations during the hypnotic state. What is of decisive importance is only whether the patient has become somnambulistic or not; that is, whether the state of consciousness brought about in the hypnosis is cut off from the ordinary one sufficiently sharply for the memory of what occurred during hypnosis to be absent after waking. The true therapeutic value of hypnosis lies in the suggestions made during it. Through suggestion, either an immediate effect is called for, particularly in treating paralyses, contractures, and so on, or a posthypnotic effect is called for; that is, one which is stipulated for a particular time after awakening. The duration of a hypnosis is arranged according to practical requirements; a comparatively long continuance under hypnosis, up to several hours, is certainly not unfavorable to success. The depth of hypnosis is not invariably in direct proportion to its success. The field of hypnotic treatment is far more extensive than that of other methods of treating nervous illnesses. If hypnosis has had success, the stability of the cure depends on the same factors as the stability of every cure achieved in another way.
A case of successful treatment by hypnotism (1892-3).
A case of successful treatment by hypnotism is presented. The subject was a young woman between 20 and 30 years old. She had had difficulty in feeding her first child and the baby was finally given out to a wet nurse. Three years later, her second child was born, and she again had difficulty in feeding the child. She had no milk, retained no food, and was quite distressed with her inability to feed the baby. After two hypnotic sessions, she was able to feed the baby and nursed it until the baby was 8 months old. The next year, a third child made the same demands on the mother and she was as unable to meet them as on the previous occasions. Once again, after the second hypnosis the symptoms were so completely cut short that a third was not required. This child too, was fed without any trouble and the mother has enjoyed uninterrupted good health. There are certain ideas which have an affect of expectancy attached to them. They are of two kinds: intentions and expectations. The affect attached to these ideas is dependent on two factors: first on the degree of importance associated with the outcome, and secondly on the degree of uncertainty inherent in the expectation of that outcome. The subjective uncertainty (the counter expectation) is itself represented by a collection of ideas which are called distressing antithetic ideas. In neuroses, where primary presence of a tendency toward depression and low self-confidence exists, great attention is paid by the patient to antithetic ideas against his intentions. When this intensification of antithetic ideas relates to expectations, if the case is one of a simple nervous state, the effect is shown in a generally pessimistic frame of mind; if the case is one of neurasthenia, associations with the most accidental sensations occasion the numerous phobias of neurasthenics.
Preface and footnotes to the translation of Charcot’s Tuesday Lectures (1892-4)
Charcot’s Tuesday Lectures contain so much that is novel that there is nobody, not even among experts, who will read them without a substantial increase of his knowledge. These lectures owe a peculiar charm to the fact that they are entirely, or for the most part, improvisations. The Professor does not know the patient who is brought before him, or knows him only superficially. He questions the patient; examines one symptom or another, and in that way determines the diagnosis of the case and restricts it or confirms it by further examination. Interest in a lecture was often properly aroused only when the diagnosis had been made and the case had been dealt with in accordance with its peculiarities. After this, Charcot would take advantage of the freedom afforded by this method of instruction in order to make remarks on similar cases in his recollection and for introducing the most important discussions on the genuinely clinical topics of their etiology, heredity and connection with other illnesses. Extracts from the footnotes to the translation of Charcot’s Tuesday Lecturesare presented.
Sketches for the “preliminary communication” of 1893. On the theory of hysterical attacks.
In a letter from Freud to Josef Breuer, the following theories of hysteria are offered: the theorem concerning the constancy of the sum of excitation; the theory of memory; and the theorem which lays it down that the contents of different states of consciousness are not associated with one another. The recollections lying behind hysterical phenomena are absent from the patient’s accessible memory, whereas under hypnosis they can be awakened with hallucinatory vividness. Therapy consists in removing the results of the ideas that have not been abreacted, either by reviving the trauma in a state of somnambulism, and then abreacting and correcting it, or by bringing it into normal consciousness under comparatively light hypnosis. The opinions on hysterical attacks have been reached by treating hysterical subjects by means of hypnotic suggestion and by questioning them under hypnosis and thus investigating their psychical processes during the attack. The constant and essential content of a (recurrent) hysterical attack is the return of a psychical state which the patient has already experienced earlier. The memory which forms the content of a hysterical attack is not any chance one; it is the return of the event which caused the outbreak of hysteria: the psychical trauma. The memory which forms the content of a hysterical attack is an unconscious one; that is, it is part of the second state of consciousness which is present in every hysteria. If a hysterical subject seeks intentionally to forget an experience or forcibly repudiates, inhibits and suppresses an intention or an idea, these psychical acts enter the second state of consciousness; from there they produce their permanent effects and the memory of them returns as a hysterical attack.
Some points for a comparative study of organic and hysterical motor paralyses (1893).
Clinical neurology recognizes two kinds of motor paralyses: peripherospinal (or bulbar) paralysis and cerebral paralysis. The type of the former is the facial paralysis in Bell’s Palsy, the paralysis in acute infantile poliomyelitis, etc. Cerebral paralysis, on the contrary, is always a disorder that attacks a large portion of the periphery, a limb, a segment of an extremity or a complicated motor apparatus. Hysteria has fairly often been credited with a faculty for simulating various organic nervous disorders. Only flaccid hysterical paralyses never affect single muscles (except where the muscle concerned is the sole instrument of a function). They are always paralyses en masse and in this respect they correspond to organic cerebral paralyses. Hysterical paralysis can be more dissociated, more systematized, than cerebral paralysis. Hysteria is a disease of excessive manifestations; it tends to produce its symptoms with the greatest possible intensity. This characteristic is shown not only in its paralyses but also in its contractures and anesthesia. Hysterical paralysis is characterized by precise limitation and excessive intensity. It possesses both these qualities at once, whereas in organic cerebral paralysis, these two characteristics are not associated with each other. Hysterical paralyses are much more frequently accompanied by disorders of sensibility than are organic paralyses. The lesion in hysterical paralyses consists in nothing other than the inaccessibility of the organ or function concerned to the associations of the conscious ego. This purely functional alteration is caused by the fixation of this conception in a subconscious association with the memory of the trauma; and this conception does not become liberated and accessible so long as the quota of affect of the psychical trauma has not been eliminated by an adequate motor reaction or by conscious psychical activity.
Extracts from the Fliess papers (1892-1899).
Wilhelm Fliess, a man 2 years younger than Freud, was a nose and throat specialist living in Berlin with whom Freud carried on a voluminous and intimate correspondence between 1887 and 1902. Fliess was a man of great ability, with very wide interests in general biology; but he pursued theories in that field which are regarded today as eccentric and quite untenable. Freud communicated his thoughts to him with the utmost freedom and did so not only in his letters but in a series of papers which presented organized accounts of his developing views. These papers were totally unknown until the time of the Second World War. The material in these drafts and letters was not intended by their author as the considered expression of his opinions, and it is often framed in a highly condensed form.
Draft A. Aetiology of actual neuroses (1892).
Some of the problems in the study of hysteria are presented. They include: Is the anxiety of anxiety neuroses derived from the inhibition of the sexual function or from the anxiety linked with their etiology? To what extent does a healthy person respond to later sexual traumas differently from an unhealthy one? Is there an innate neurasthenia with innate sexual weakness or is it always acquired in youth? What plays a part in the etiology of periodic depression? Is sexual anesthesia in women anything other than a result of impotence? The theses include: 1) no neurasthenia or analogous neurosis exists without a disturbance of the sexual function; 2) this either has an immediate causal effect or acts as a disposition for other factors; 3) neurasthenia in men is accompanied by relative impotence; 4) neurasthenia in women is a direct consequence of neurasthenia in men; 5) periodic depression is a form of anxiety neurosis; 6) anxiety neurosis is in part a consequence of inhibition of the sexual function; 7) hysteria in neurasthenic neuroses indicates suppression of the accompanying affects. The following groups were proposed for observation: men and women who have remained healthy, sterile women, women infected with gonorrhoea, loose living men who are gonorrhoeal, members of severely tainted families who have remained healthy, and observations from countries in which particular sexual abnormalities are endemic. The etiological factors include: exhaustion owing to abnormal satisfaction, inhibition of the sexual function, affects accompanying these practices, and sexual traumas before the age of understanding.
Draft B. The Aetiology of the neuroses (1893).
The etiology of the neuroses is discussed. Neurasthenia is a frequent consequence of an abnormal sexual life. Neurasthenia in males is acquired at puberty and becomes manifest in the patient’s twenties. Its source is masturbation, the frequency of which runs completely parallel with the frequency of male neurasthenia. Girls are sound and not neurasthenic; and this is true as well of young married women, in spite of all the sexual traumas of this period of life. In comparatively rare cases neurasthenia appears in married women and in older unmarried ones in its pure form; it is then to be regarded as having arisen spontaneously. The mixed neurosis of women is derived from neurasthenia in men in all those not infrequent cases in which the man, being a sexual neurasthenic, suffers from impaired potency. The admixture of hysteria results directly from the holding back of the excitation of the act. Every case of neurasthenia is marked by a certain lowering of self confidence, by pessimistic expectation and an inclination to distressing antithetic ideas. Anxiety neurosis appears in two forms: as a chronic state and as an attack of anxiety. The chronic symptoms are: 1) anxiety relating to the body (hypochondria); 2) anxiety relating to the functioning of the body (agoraphobia, claustrophobia, giddiness on heights); and 3) anxiety relating to decisions and memory. Periodic depression, an attack of anxiety lasting for weeks or months, is another form of anxiety neurosis. It is concluded that the neuroses are entirely preventable as well as entirely incurable. The physician’s task is wholly shifted on to prophylaxis.
Letter 14. Coitus interruptus as an aetiological factor (1893).
Four new cases are discussed whose etiology, as shown by the chronological data, was given as coitus interruptus. The first case is a 41-year-old woman. She was very intelligent and had no fear of having children. Her diagnosis was that of simple anxiety neurosis. The second case is a 24-year-old woman. She was described as a nice, stupid young woman in whom the anxiety was highly developed. After a short while she had hysteria for the first time. The third case is a 42-year-old man with anxiety neurosis and heart symptoms. He was a very potent man who was a great smoker. The fourth case is a 34-year-old man who was (without having masturbated) only moderately potent.
Draft D. On the aetiology and theory of the major neuroses (1894).
The etiology and theory of the major neuroses are presented. Included in the morphology of the neuroses are the following categories: neurasthenia and the pseudoneurasthenias, anxiety neurosis, obsessional neurosis, hysteria, melancholia and mania, the mixed neuroses, and the ramifications of the neuroses and transitions to the normal. The etiology of the neuroses covers the following neuroses: neurasthenia, anxiety neurosis, obsessional neurosis and hysteria, melancholia, and the mixed neuroses. It also covers: the basic etiological formula, the sexual factors in their etiological significance, an examination of the patients, objections and proofs, and the behavior of asexual people. A discussion of the relationship between etiology and heredity was planned. The following points were to be included in a discussion of theory: the points of contact with the theory of constancy, the sexual process in the light of the theory of constancy, the mechanism of the neuroses, the parallel between the neuroses of sexuality and neuroses.
Letter 18. Effect of sexual noxae (1894)
Three mechanisms of the neuroses are presented: transformation of affect (conversion hysteria), displacement of affect (obsessions), and exchange of affect (anxiety neurosis and melancholia). In every case what seems to undergo these alterations is sexual excitation, but the impetus to them is not, in every case, something sexual. In every case in which neuroses are acquired, they are acquired owing to disturbances of sexual life; but there are people in whom the behavior of their sexual affects is disturbed hereditarily, and they develop the corresponding forms of hereditary neuroses. The most general aspects from which the neuroses can be classified are the following: degeneracy, senility, conflict, and conflagration.
Draft E. How anxiety originates (1894)
The anxiety of the neurotic patient has a great deal to do with sexuality; and in particular, with coitus interruptus. Anxiety neurosis affects women who are anesthetic in coitus just as much as sensitive ones. Several cases in which anxiety arose from a sexual cause are presented: anxiety in virginal people; anxiety in intentionally abstinent people; anxiety of necessarily abstinent people; anxiety of women living in coitus interruptus; anxiety of men practicing coitus interruptus; anxiety of men who go beyond their desire or strength; and anxiety of men who abstain on occasion. Anxiety neurosis is a neurosis of damming up, like hysteria. In anxiety neurosis there must be a deficit to be noted in sexual affect, in psychical libido. If this connection is put before women patients, they are always indignant and declare that on the contrary they now have no desire whatever. Men patients often confirm it as an observation that since suffering from anxiety they have felt no sexual desire. When there is an abundant development of physical sexual tension, but this cannot be turned into affect by psychical working over, the sexual tension is transformed into anxiety. A part is played in this by the accumulation of physical tension and the prevention of discharge in the psychical direction. There is a kind of conversion in anxiety neurosis just as there is in hysteria; but in hysteria it is psychical excitation that takes a wrong path exclusively into the somatic field, whereas here it is a physical tension, which cannot enter the psychical field and therefore remains on the physical path.
Draft F. Collection III Two case histories (1894)
Two cases are presented with a discussion of each one. In the first case, that of a 27-year-old man, there was a hereditary disposition: his father suffered from melancholia and his sister had a typical anxiety neurosis. The subject’s libido had been diminishing for some time; the preparations for using a condom were enough to make him feel that the whole act was something forced on him and his enjoyment of it something he was persuaded into. The fear of infection and the decision to use a condom laid the foundation for what has been described as the factor of alienation between the somatic and the psychical. The effect would be the same as in the case of coitus interruptus with men. The subject brought psychical sexual weakness on himself because he spoiled coitus for himself, and his physical health and production of sexual stimuli being unimpaired, the situation gave rise to the generation of anxiety. The second case involves a healthy 44-year-old man. He complained that he was losing his liveliness and zest, in a way that was not natural in a man of his age. This was described as a mild but very characteristic case of periodic depression, melancholia. The symptoms, apathy, inhibition, intracranial pressure, dyspepsia, and insomnia complete the picture.
Letter 21. Two case histories (1894).
Two cases are presented and discussed. The first, a 34-year-old physician, suffered for many years from organic sensitivity of the eyes: phospheum (flashes), dazzle, scotomas, etc. This increased enormously, to the point of preventing him from working. This was diagnosed as a typical case of hypochondria in a particular organ in a masturbater at periods of sexual excitation. The second case is that of a 28-year~old boy from a highly neurotic family. He suffered for some weeks from lassitude, intracranial pressure, shaky knees, reduced potency, premature ejaculation, and the beginnings of perversion. He alleged that his potency has been capricious from the first; admitted masturbation, but not too prolonged; and had a period of abstinence behind him now. Before that, he had anxiety states in the evening. There was some doubt as to his honesty.
Draft G. Melancholia (1895).
There are striking connections between melancholia and anesthesia. Melancholia is generated as an intensification of neurasthenia through masturbation. Melancholia appears in typical combination with severe anxiety. The type and extreme form of melancholia seems to be the periodic or cyclical hereditary form. The affect corresponding to melancholia is that of mourning. The nutritional neurosis parallel to melancholia is anorexia. Potent individuals easily acquire anxiety neuroses; impotent ones incline to melancholia. A description of the effects of melancholia includes: psychical inhibition with instinctual impoverishment and pain concerning it. Anesthesia seems to encourage melancholia; however, anesthesia is not the cause of melancholia but a sign of disposition to it.
Draft H. Paranoia (1895).
In psychiatry, delusional ideas stand alongside of obsessional ideas as purely intellectual disorders, and paranoia stands alongside of obsessional insanity as an intellectual psychosis. Paranoia, in its classical form, is a pathological mode of defense, like hysteria, obsessional neurosis and hallucinatory confusion. People become paranoiac over things that they cannot put up with, provided that they possess the peculiar psychical disposition for it. The purpose of paranoia is to fend off an idea that is incompatible with the ego, by projecting its substance into the external world. The transposition is effected very simply. It is a question of an abuse of a psychical mechanism which is very commonly employed in normal life: transposition or projection. Paranoia is the abuse of the mechanism of projection for purposes of defense. Something quite analogous takes place with obsessional ideas. The mechanism of substitution is a normal one. This normally operating mechanism of substitution is abused in obsessional ideas for purposes of defense. The delusional idea is maintained with the same energy with which another, intolerably distressing, idea is fended off from the ego. They love their delusions as they love themselves. Paranoia and hallucinatory confusion are the two psychoses of defense or contrariness.
Letter 22. Dream as analogy to D’s dream psychosis (1895).
A small analogy to D’s dream psychosis is reported. Rudi Kaufmann, a very intelligent nephew of Breuer’s, and a medical student too, is a late riser. He gets himself called by a servant, but is very reluctant about obeying her. One morning she woke him up a second time and, as he would not respond, called him by his name: ‘Herr Rudi!’ Thereupon the sleeper had a hallucination of a notice board over a hospital bed with the name ‘Rudolf Kaufmann’ on it, and said to himself: ‘R.K.’s in the hospital in any case, then; so I needn’t go there!’ and went on sleeping.
Draft I. Migraine: Established points (1895).
The established points concerning migraine are presented. There is an interval of hours or days between the instigation and the outbreak of the symptoms. Even without an instigation there is an impression that there must be an accumulating stimulus which is present in the smallest quantity at the beginning of the interval and in the largest quantity towards its end. Migraine appears to be a matter of summation, in which susceptibility to etiological factors lies in the height of the level of the stimulus already present. Migraine has a complicated etiology, perhaps on the pattern of a chain etiology, where approximate cause can be produced by a number of factors directly and indirectly, or on the pattern of a summation etiology, where, alongside of a specific cause, stock causes can act as quantitative substitutes. Migraines appear rarest in healthy males; are restricted to the sexual time of life; and appear frequently in people with disturbed sexual discharge. Migraine can be produced by chemical stimuli too, such as: human toxic emanations, scirocco, fatigue, and smells. There is a cessation of migraine during pregnancy. The pain of a neuralgia usually finds its discharge in tonic tension. Therefore, it is not impossible that migraine may include a spastic innervation of the muscles of blood Vessels in the reflex sphere of the dural region.
Draft J. Frau P.J. (aged 27) (1895).
The subject of this study is a 27-year-old woman. She had been married for 3 months. Her husband, a commercial traveller, had had to leave her a few weeks after their marriage. She missed him very much and longed for him. To pass the time, she was sitting at the piano singing, when suddenly she felt ill in her abdomen and stomach, her head swam, she had feelings of oppression and anxiety and cardiac paraesthesia; she thought she was going mad. Next day, the servant told her that a woman living in the same house had gone mad. From that time on she was never free of an obsession, accompanied by anxiety, that she was going to go mad too. It was assumed that her condition then had been an anxiety attack: a release of sexual feeling which was transformed into anxiety. With probing, it was discovered that she had had another attack 4 years earlier, also while she was singing. An effort was made to determine the other ideas present in order to account for the release of sexual feeling and the fright. However, instead of revealing these intermediate links, she discussed her motives.
Note. By Strachey (1966).
During the whole of the latter part of the year 1895 Freud was largely occupied with the fundamental theoretical problem of the relation between neurology and psychology. His reflections finally led to the uncompleted work which was named a Project for a Scientific Psychology. This was written in September and October, 1895, and should appear, chronologically, at this point in the Fliess papers. It stands so much apart, however, from the rest of them, and constitutes such a formidable and self contained entity, that it was printed in a detached shape at the end of the first volume of the Standard Edition. One letter, Number 39′ written on January 1, 1896, is so closely connected with the Project that it too has been removed from its proper place in the correspondence and printed as an appendix to the Project. That Freud had also during all this period been concerned with clinical matters as well, is conclusively shown by the fact that on the very same day on which he dispatched this letter, he also sent Fliess Draft K.
Draft K. The neuroses of defence: A Christmas fairy tale (1896).
The neuroses of defense are discussed. There are 4 types of neuroses of defense. A comparison is made between 3 different emotional states: hysteria, obsessional neurosis, and one form of paranoia. They have various things in common. They are all pathological aberrations of normal psychical affective states: of conflict (hysteria), of self-reproach (obsessional neurosis), of mortification (paranoia), of mourning (acute hallucinatory amentia). They differ from these affects in that they do not lead to anything being settled but to permanent damage to the ego. Heredity is a precondition, in that it facilitates and increases the pathological affect. It is this precondition which mainly makes possible the gradations between the normal and extreme case. There is a normal trend toward defense; however, the trend toward defense becomes detrimental if it is directed against ideas which are also able, in the form of memories, to release fresh unpleasure, as is the case with sexual ideas. The course taken by the illness in neuroses of repression is almost always the same: I) there is a sexual experience which is traumatic and premature and becomes repressed. 2) its repression on some later occasion arouses a memory of it; at the same time, there is. the formation of a primary symptom. 3) there is a stage of successful defense, which is equivalent to health except for the existence of the primary symptom. 4) the last stage is that in which the repressed ideas return, and in which during the struggle between them and the ego, new symptoms are formed which are those of the illness proper; that is, a stage of adjustment, of being overwhelmed, or of recovery with a malformation. In obsessional neuroses, the primary experience has been accompanied by pleasure. In paranoia, the primary experience seems to be of a similar nature to that in obsessional neurosis; repression occurs after the memory of it has released unpleasure. Hysteria presupposes a primary experience of unpleasure of a passive nature.
Letter 46. Four periods of life and aetiology (1896).
The following solution to the etiology of the psycho-neuroses are presented. Four periods of life are distinguished: up to 4 years, preconscious; up to 8 years, infantile; up to 14 years, prepubertal; and up to infinity, maturity. The periods between 8 to 10 and 13 to 17 are the transitional periods during which repression occurs. The scenes for hysteria occur in the first period of childhood (up to 4 years), in which the mnemic residues are not translated into verbal images. Hysteria always results, and in the form of conversion. The scenes for obsessional neuroses belong to the infantile period. The scenes for paranoia fall in the prepubertal period and are aroused in maturity. In that case, defense is manifested in disbelief. Hysteria is the only neurosis in which symptoms are possible even without defense. Consciousness, as regards memories, consists of the verbal consciousness pertaining to them; that is, in access to the associated word presentations. Consciousness is not attached exclusively and inseparably either to the so-called unconscious or to the so-called conscious realm, so that these names seem to call for rejection. Consciousness is determined by a compromise between the different psychical powers which come into conflict with one another when repressions occur. These powers include: the inherent quantitative strength of a presentation and a freely displaceable attention which is attracted according to certain rules and repelled in accordance with the rule of defense. It is in the conflict between uninhibited and thought-inhibited psychical processes that symptoms arise. One species of psychical disturbance arises if the power of the uninhibited processes increases; another if the force of the thought inhibition relaxes.
Letter 50 Funeral dream (1896).
Freud presented a report of a dream: I was in some public place and read a notice there: You are asked to close the eyes. I recognized the place as the barber’s to which I go every day. On the day of the funeral I was kept waiting there and therefore reached the house of mourning rather late. At that time my family was displeased with me because I had arranged for the funeral to be quiet and simple, which they later agreed was quite right. They also took my being late in somewhat bad part. The sentence on the notice board has a double sense, and means in both of them: ‘one should do one’s duty to the dead’. (An apology, as though I had not done it and my conduct needed overlooking, and the duty taken literally.) Thus the dream is an outlet for the inclination to self-reproach which is regularly present among survivors.
Letter 52. Stratification of memory traces (1896).
A thesis is presented that memory is present not once but several times over, that it is laid down in various species of indications. There are at least 3 registrations, probably more. The different registrations are also separated (not necessarily topographically) according to the neurones which are their vehicles. The perceptions are neurones in which perceptions originate, to which consciousness attaches, but which in themselves retain no trace of what has happened. Consciousness and memory are mutually exclusive. The indication of perception is the first registration of the perceptions; it is quite incapable of consciousness, and is arranged according to associations by simultaneity. Unconsciousness is the second registration, arranged according to other (perhaps causal) relations. The unconsciousness traces correspond to conceptual memories; equally inaccessible to consciousness. Preconsciousness is the third transcription, attached to word presentations and corresponding to the official ego. The cathexes proceeding from preconsciousness become conscious according to certain rules; and this secondary thought consciousness is subsequent in time, and is probably linked to the hallucinatory activation of word presentations, so that the neurones of consciousness would once again be perceptual neurones and in themselves without memory. The successive registrations represent the psychical achievement of successive epochs of life. At the frontier between 2 such epochs a translation of the psychical material must take place. A failure of translation is known as repression. There are 3 groups of sexual psychoneuroses: hysteria, obsessional neurosis, and paranoia. Repressed memories relate to what was current in the case of hysteria between the ages of 1_ and 4, of obsessional neurosis between 4 and 8, and of paranoia between 8 and 14.
Letter 55. Determinants of psychosis (1897).
Two ideas, based on analytic findings, are presented. The determinant of a psychosis (amentia or a confusional psychosis), instead of a neurosis seems to be sexual abuse that occurs before the end of the first intellectual stage (before 15 to 18 months). It is possible that the abuse may date back so far that these experiences lie concealed behind the later ones. Epilepsy goes back to the same period. The perversions regularly lead into zoophilia, and have an animal character. They are explained not by the functioning of erotogenic zones which have later been abandoned, but by the operation of erotogenic sensations which lose this force later. The principal sense in animals is that of smell, which has lost that position in human beings. So long as smell (or taste) is dominant, hair, faces, and the whole surface of the body have a sexually exciting effect. The increase in the sense of smell in hysteria is no doubt connected with this.
Letter 56. Hysteria and witches (1897).
The medieval theory of possession, held by the ecclesiastical courts, is said to be identical with the theory of a foreign body and a splitting of consciousness. The cruelties made it possible to understand some symptoms of hysteria which have hitherto been obscure. The inquisitors pricked with needles, to discover the Devil’s stigmata, and in a similar situation the victims invented the same old cruel story (helped by the seducer’s disguises). Thus, not only the victims but the executioners recalled in this their earliest youth.
Letter 57. Witches and symbolism (1897).
The idea of bringing in the witches is gaining strength. Details are beginning to crowd in. Their flying is explained; the broomstick they ride on is probably the great Lord Penis. Their secret gatherings, with dancing and other amusements, can be seen any day in the streets where children play. Alongside of flying and floating on the air can be put the gymnastic feats of boys in hysterical attacks. Perverse actions are always the same. They are made with a meaning and a pattern which one day will be understood. The dream is of a primeval Devil religion, whose rites are carried on secretly. There is a class of people, paranoiacs, who tell stories like those of the witches. These paranoiacs complain that people put feces in their food, ilitreat them at night in the most abominable way, sexually, etc. There is a distinction between delusion of memory and interpretative delusions. The latter are connected with the characteristic indefiniteness concerning the evildoers, who are concealed by the defense. In hysterical patients, their fathers are seen behind their high standards in love, their humility towards their lover, or their being unable to marry because their ideals are unfulfilled.
Letter 59. Age of hysterical fantasies (1897).
The point that escaped me in the solution of hysteria lies in the discovery of a new source from which a new element of unconscious production arises. What I have in mind are hysterical phantasies, which regularly, as it seems to me, go back to things heard by children at an early age and only understood later. The age at which they take in information of this kind is very remarkable, from the age of 6 to 7 months onwards!
Letter 60. Dream about Fliess (1897).
A dream is presented and discussed. The provoking cause of the dream was the events from the previous day. The dream was a telegraph message. It said Via, Casa Secerno, Villa. The interpretation of the dream was that it collected together all the annoyance that was unconsciously present in the dreamer. The complete interpretation occurred only after a lucky chance brought a fresh confirmation of paternal etiology. That case was an ordinary case of hysteria with the usual symptoms.
Letter 61. Structure of hysteria (1897).
The structure of hysteria is presented. Everything goes back to the reproduction of scenes, some of which can be arrived at directly, but others always by way of phantasies set up in front of them. The phantasies are derived from things that have been heard but understood subsequently and all their material is genuine. They are protective structures, sublimations of the facts, embellishments of them, and at the same time exonerations. Their precipitating origin is perhaps from masturbation phantasies. A second important piece of insight is that the psychical structures which, in hysteria, are affected by repression are not in reality memories, but impulses which arise from the primal scenes. All 3 neuroses (hysteria, obsessional neurosis, and paranoia) exhibit the same elements (along with the same etiology); that is, mnemic fragments, impulses (derived from the memory) and protective fictions. The breakthrough into consciousness and the formation of compromises (that is, of symptoms) occurs in them at different points. In hysteria, the memories; in obsessional neurosis, the perverse impulses; in paranoia, the protective fictions (phantasies), are what penetrate into normal life distorted by compromise.
Draft L. Architecture of hysteria (1897).
The architecture of hysteria is presented. The aim of hysteria seems to be to arrive back at the primal scenes. In a few cases this is achieved directly, but in others only by a roundabout path. Phantasies are psychical facades constructed in order to bar the way to these memories. Phantasies at the same time serve the trend towards refining the things that are heard, and made use of subsequently; thus they combine things that have been experienced and things that have been perceived. An immense load of guilt, with self-reproaches, is made possible by identification with people of low morals, who are so often remembered as worthiess women connected sexually with a father or a brother. There was a girl who was afraid to pick a flower or even to pull up a mushroom, because it was against the command of God, who did not wish living seeds to be destroyed. In hysteria, the following events and topics have been seen:the part played by servant girls, mushrooms, pains, multiplicity of psychical personalities, wrapping up, multiple editions of phantasies, and wishful dreams.
Draft M. Repression in hysteria (1897).
The architecture of hysteria is presented. Some of the scenes are accessible directly, but others only by way of phantasies set up in front of them. The scenes are arranged in the order of increasing resistance: the more slightly repressed ones come to light first, but only incompletely on account of their association with the severely repressed ones. It is to be suspected that the essentially repressed element is always what is feminine. Phantasies arise from an unconscious combination, in accordance with certain trends, of things experienced and heard. These trends are toward making inaccessible the memory from which the symptoms have emerged or might emerge. Phantasies are constructed by a process of amalgamation and distortion analogous to the decomposition of a chemical body which is compounded with another one. All anxiety symptoms (phobias) are derived from phantasies. The kinds of compromise displacement are: displacement by association, hysteria; displacement by (conceptual) similarity, obsessional neurosis (characteristic of the place at which the defense occurs, and perhaps also of the time); and causal displacement, paranoia. Repression proceeds backwards from what is recent, and affects the latest events first. The phantasies in paranoia are systematic, all of them in harmony with each other. The phantasies in hysteria are independent of one another and contradictory.
Letter 64. Two dreams (1897).
Freud reported and discussed two dreams. The first dream was of having over-affectionate feelings towards Mathilde, only she was called Hella and afterwards the word Hella was printed in heavy type. The solution was that Hella is the name of an American niece. Mathilde could be called Hella because she has recently wept so much over the Greek defeats. She is enthusiastic about the mythology of ancient Hellas and naturally regards all Hellenes as heroes. The dream shows the fulfillment of the wish to catch a father as the originator of neurosis, and so to put an end to the doubts which still persist. The second dream concerned going up a staircase with very few clothes on. The dreamer was moving with great agility. Suddenly, a woman was coming and thereupon the experience set in of being glued to the spot. The accompanying feeling was not anxiety but an erotic excitation.
Draft N. Impulses, fantasies and symptoms (1897).
Hostile impulses against parents are an integral constituent of neuroses. They come to light consciously as obsessional ideas. In paranoia, delusions of persecution correspond to these impulses. They are repressed at times when compassion for the parents is active. On such occasions, it is a manifestation of mourning to reproach oneself for their death or to punish oneself in a hysterical fashion with the same states that they have had. It seems as though this death wish is directed in sons against their fathers and in daughters against their mothers. Memories appear to bifurcate: part of them is put aside and replaced by phantasies; another, more accessible, part seems to lead directly to impulses. Belief (and doubt) is a phenomenon that belongs wholly to the system of the ego and has no counterpart in the unconscious. In the neuroses, belief is displaced; it is refused to the repressed material if it forces its way to reproduction and, as a punishment, transposed onto the defending material. The mechanism of poetry is the same as that of hysterical phantasies. Remembering is never a motive but only a way, a method. The first motive for the construction of symptoms is, chronologically, libido. Thus symptoms, like dreams, are the fulfillment of a wish. The repression of impulses seems to produce not anxiety but perhaps depression, melancholia. In this way the melancholias are related to obsessional neurosis. Holiness is something based on the fact that human beings, for the benefit of the larger community, have sacrificed a portion of their sexual liberty and their liberty to indulge in perversions.
Letter 66. Defense against memories (1897).
Defense against the memories does not prevent their giving rise to higher psychical structures, which persist for a while and are then themselves subjected to defense. This, however, is of a most highly specific kind, precisely as in dreams, which contain, in a nutshell, the psychology of the neuroses quite generally. The most assured thing seems to be the explanation of dreams, but it is surrounded by a vast number of obstinate riddles. The organological questions await a solution. There is an interesting dream of wandering about among strangers, totally or half undressed and with feelings of shame and anxiety. The people do not notice it. This dream material, which goes back to exhibiting in childhood, has been misunderstood and worked over didactically in a well-known fairy tale.
Letter 67. Doubts about theory of neuroses (1897).
A letter reflected various personal feelings of Freud. Things were fermenting but nothing had been finished The psychology was satisfactory, but there were grave doubts about the theory of the neuroses. The mind was sluggish. After having been very cheerful, there was a period of ill temper. The mild hysteria, very much aggravated by work, however, had been resolved but the rest was still at a standstill.
Letter 69. Doubts about theory of neuroses (1897).
The author’s original traumatic theory of the neuroses is no longer held. There are 4 reasons given for its abandonment: 1) the continual disappointments in the attempts at bringing analysis to a real conclusion, the running away of people who had for a time seemed most in the grasp, the absence of the complete successes and the possibility of explaining the partial successes in other ways. 2) In every case the father had to be blamed as a pervert. 3) The discovery that there are no indications of reality in the unconscious, so that one cannot distinguish between the truth and fiction that is cathected with affect. 4) The reflection that in the most deep-going psychosis the unconscious memory does not break through, so that the secret of the childhood experience is not betrayed even in the most confused delirium. These doubts were the results of honest and forcible intellectual work.
Letter 70. Freud’s early memories from self-analysis (1897).
Freud’s self-analysis, which he considered to be indispensable for throwing light upon a problem, proceeded in dreams and presented several valuable inferences and clues. In summary, it seemed that the father played no active part in the case, but an inference was drawn by analogy on to him. The prime originator was a woman, ugly, elderly, but clever, who told a great deal about God Almighty and Hell and who instilled in him a high opinion of his capacities. Later, between 2 and 2_ years of age the libido was stirred up towards the mother. A dream is reported concerning his teacher in sexual matters who scolds him for being clumsy, washes him in reddish water and makes him give her silver coins. This is summed up as ‘bad treatment’, and alludes to his powerlessness as a therapist since he gets money from his bad treatment of patients.
Letter 71. Universality of Oedipus complex (1 897).
Self-analysis appeared to be the most essential task for Freud. An interpretation of a dream was confirmed by a discussion with his mother. It was concluded that to be completely honest with oneself is good practice. Failing in love with the mother and jealousy of the father was regarded as a universal event of early childhood. Because of this, the riveting power of Oedipus Rex can be understood. It was speculated that Hamlet had the same kinds of feelings to his father and mother.
Letter 72. Resistances reflect childhood (1897).
Resistance, which finally brings work to a halt, is nothing other than the child’s past degenerate character,which (as a result of those experiences which one finds present consciously in what are called degenerate cases) has developed or might have developed, but which is overlaid here by the emergence of repression. This infantile character develops during the period of longing, after the child has been withdrawn from the sexual experiences. Longing is the main character trait of hysteria, just as anesthesia is its main symptom. During this period of longing, the phantasies are constructed and masturbation is practiced, which afterwards yields to repression. If it does not give way, then there is no hysteria; the discharge of sexual excitation removes for the most part, the possibility of hysteria.
Letter 73. Children’s speech during sleep (1897).
His analysis proceeds and remains Freud’s chief interest. Everything is still obscure, even the problems; but there is a comfortable feeling that one has only to rummage in one’s own storeroom to find, sooner or later, what one needs. The most disagreeable things are the moods, which often completely hide reality. For someone like him, too, sexual excitation is no longer of use. The speech of a 1_-year-old child was reported and interpreted as wish fulfillment. Little Anna had to starve one day because she was sick in the morning, which was put down to a meal of strawberries. During the following night she called out a whole menu in her sleep: ‘Stwawbewwies, wild stwawbewwies, omblet, pudden!’
Letter 75. Erotogenic zones (1897).
Something organic plays a part in repression. This notion was linked to the changed part played by the sensations of smell: the upright carriage that is adopted. The nose raised from the ground, at the same time a number of formerly interesting sensations attached to the earth becoming repulsive, by a unknown process. The zones, which no longer produce a release of sexuality in normal and mature human beings, must be the regions of the anus and of the mouth and throat. The appearance and idea of these zones no longer produce an exciting effect, and the internal sensations arising from them furnish no contribution to the libido, in the way in which the sexual organs do. In animals these sexual zones continue in force in both respects: if this persists in human beings too, perversion results. As we turn away our sense organs (the head and nose) in disgust, so do our preconsciousness and our conscious sense turn away from the memory. This is repression. Experiences in childhood which merely affect the genitals never produce neurosis in males (or masculine females) but only compulsive masturbation and libido. The choice of neurosis (hysteria, obsessional neurosis, or paranoia) depends on the nature of the wave of development (that is to say, its chronological placing) which enables repression to occur.
Letter 79. Masturbation, addiction and obsessional neurosis (1897).
Masturbation is the one major habit, the ‘primal addiction’ and it is only as a substitute and replacement for it that the other addictions for alcohol, morphine, tobacco, etc. come into existence. The part played by this addiction in hysteria is quite enormous; and it is perhaps there that the outstanding obstacle is to be found. As regards obsessional neurosis, the fact is confirmed that the locality at which the repressed breaks through is the word presentation and not the concept attached to it. Hence the most disparate things are readily united as an obsessional idea under a single word with more than one meaning. Obsessional ideas are often clothed in a remarkable verbal vagueness in order to permit multiple employment.
Letter 84. Dreams and phylogenesis (1898).
In a letter, Freud wrote that the dream book has come to a halt again and the problem has deepened and widened. The theory of wish fulfillment has brought about only the psychological solution and not the biological, or, rather, metaphysical one. Biologically, dream life seems to derive entirely from the residues of the prehistoric period of life, the same period which is the source of the unconscious and alone contains the etiology of all the psychoneuroses, the period normally characterized by an amnesia analogous to hysterical amnesia. The following formula was suggested: what is seen in the prehistoric period produces dreams; what is heard in it produces phantasies; and what is experienced sexually in it produces the psychoneuroses. The repetition of what was experienced in that period is in itself the fulfillment of a wish; a recent wish only leads to a dream if it can put itself in connection with material from this prehistoric period, if the recent wish is a derivative of a prehistoric one or can get itself adopted by one.
Letter 97. Childhood enuresis (1898).
The subject of a new case is a young man of 25, who can scarcely walk owing to stiffness of the legs, spasms, tremors, etc. A safeguard against any wrong diagnosis is provided by the accompanying anxiety, which makes him cling to his mother’s apron strings. The death of his brother and the death of his father in a psychosis precipitated the onset of his condition, which has been present since he was 14. He feels ashamed in front of anyone who sees him walking in this way and he regards that as natural. His model is a tabetic uncle, with whom he identified himself at the age of 13 on account of the accepted etiology (leading a dissolute life). The shame is merely appended to the symptoms and must relate to the other precipitating factor. His uncle was not the least ashamed of his gait. The connection between his shame and his gait was rational many years ago when he had gonorrhoea which was naturally noticeable in his gait, and even some years earlier, too, when constant (aim. less) erections interfered with his walking. The whole story of his youth, on the one hand, has its climax in the leg symptoms and, on the other hand, releases the affect belonging to it, and the 2 are soldered together only for his internal perception.
Letter 101. Retrospective fantasies (1899).
In a letter, Freud wrote that a small bit of self-analysis has forced its way through, and confirmed that phantasies are products of later periods and are projected back from the then present on to the earliest childhood, and the manner in which this occurs has also emerged, once more a verbal link. Another psychical element has been found which is regarded as of general significance and as being a preliminary stage of symptoms. The dream pattern is capable of the most general application, and the key to hysteria, as well, really lies in dreams.
Letter 102. Hysteria and fantasies (1899).
Hysterical headaches rest on an analogy in phantasy which equates the top with the bottom end of the body, so that an attack of migraine can be used to represent a forcible defloration, while, nevertheless, the whole ailment also represents a situation of wish fulfillment. In a woman patient there were constant states of despair with a melancholic conviction that she was of no use, was incapable of anything, etc. When she was a girl of 14 she discovered that she had an imperforate hymen and was in despair that she would be no use as a wife. The diagnosis was melancholia, that is, fear of impotence. With another woman patient, there was a conviction that there really was such a thing as hysterical melancholia.
Letter 105. Importance of wish fulfillment (1899).
It is not only dreams that are wish fulfillments but hysterical attacks as well. This is true of hysterical symptoms and probably, of every neurotic event too. A symptom is the wish fulfillment of the repressing thought when, for instance, it is a punishment, a self-punishment, the final replacement of self-gratification, of masturbation. One woman suffers from hysterical vomiting because in phantasy she is pregnant, because she is so insatiable that she cannot put up with not having a baby by her last phantasy lover as well. But she must vomit too, because in that case she will be starved and emaciated, and will lose her beauty and no longer be attractive to anyone. Thus the sense of the symptom is a contradictory pair of wish fulfillments. A man turns red and sweats as soon as he sees one of a particular category of acquaintances. He is ashamed of a phantasy in which he figures as the deflowerer of every person he meets.
Letter 125. Choice of neurosis (1899).
The problem of ‘choice of neurosis’ is discussed. The lowest sexual stratum is autoeroticism, which does without any psychosexual aim and demands only local feelings of satisfaction. It is succeeded by alloerotism (homo and heteroerotism); but it certainly also continues to exist as a separate current. Hysteria (and its variant, obsessional neurosis) is alloerotic its main path is identification with the person loved. Paranoia dissolves the identification once more; it reestablishes all the figures loved in childhood which have been abandoned and it dissolves the ego itself into extraneous figures. Paranoia is regarded as a forward surge of the autoerotic current, as a return to the standpoint prevailing then. The perversion corresponding to it would be what is known as ‘idiopathic insanity’ The special relations of autoeroticism to the original ego would throw a clear light on the nature of this neurosis.
Project for a scientific psychology: Editor’s introduction and key to abbreviations in the project (1966).
The present translation of Project for a Scientific Psychology is a completely revised one, edited in accordance with the original manuscript. The ideas contained in the Project persisted, and eventually blossomed into the theories of psychoanalysis. Freud was not a meticulously careful writer, and a certain number of obvious slips occur. These were corrected in this version, except where the mistake is a doubtful one or of special importance. Freud’s punctuation is unsystematic and in any case often differs from English usage. The main problem raised by Freud’s manuscript is his use of abbreviations. The Project was written in 2 or 3 weeks, left unfinished, and criticized severely at the time of its writing. There is very little in these pages to anticipate the technical procedures of psychoanalysis. Free association, the interpretation of unconscious material, and transference are barely hinted at. Only in the passages on dreams is there any anticipation of later clinical developments. All the emphasis in the Project is upon the environment’s impact upon the organism and the organism’ 5 reaction to it. The Project is a pre-id description of the mind. The abbreviations used in the Project are: Q = Quantity (of the intercellular order of magnitude); phi = system of permeable neurones; psi = system of impermeable neurones; omega = system of perceptual neurones; W = perception; V = idea; and M = motor image.
Project for a scientific psychology. General scheme-Part I: Introduction and sections 1-8 (1895).
The intention is to furnish a psychology that is a natural science: that is, to represent psychical processes as quantitatively determinate states of specifiable material particles. The first principal theorem is the quantitative conception (Qn). This is derived directly from pathological clinical observation especially where excessively intense ideas were concerned. The second principal theorem is the neurone theory. The nervous system consists of distinct and similarly constructed neurones, which have contact with one another through the mediums of a foreign substance, which terminate upon one another as they do upon portions of foreign tissue, in which certain lines of conduction are laid down in so far as the neurones receive excitations through cell processes (dendrites) and give them off through an axis cyclinder (axon). The hypothesis of there being 2 systems of neurones, phi and psi, of which phi consists of permeable elements and psi of impermeable, seems to provide an explanation of one of the peculiarities of the nervous system, that of retaining and yet of remaining capable of receiving. The intercellular stimuli are of a comparatively small order of magnitude and of the same order as the resistances of the contact barriers. The nervous system has an inclination to a flight from pain. The transmission of quality is not durable; it leaves no traces behind and cannot be reproduced. There is a coincidence between the characteristics of consciousness and processes in the omega neurones which vary in parallel with them.
Project for a scientific psychology. General scheme-Part I: Sections 9-13 (1895).
The amounts of excitation penetrate from outside to the endings of the phi system of permeable neurones. The qualitative characteristic of the stimuli now proceeds unhindered through phi (the system of permeable neurones to psi) the system of impermeable neurones to omega (the system of perceptual neurones) where it generates sensation; it is represented by a particular period of neuronal motion, which is certainly not the same as that of the stimulus, but has a certain relation to it in accordance with a reduction formula. The nucleus of psi is connected with the paths by which endogenous quantities of excitation ascend. It is assumed that the endogenous stimuli are of an intercellular nature. The filling of the nuclear neurones in psi will have as its result an effort to discharge, an urgency which is released along the motor pathway. Pain has a peculiar quality, which makes itself felt along with the unpleasure. If the mnemic image of the hostile object is freshly cathected in some way, a state arises which is not pain but which nevertheless has a resemblance to it. The residues of the 2 kinds of experiences of pain and of satisfaction are affects and wishful states.
Project for a scientific psychology. General scheme-Part I: Sections 14-18 (1895).
With the hypotheses of wishful attraction and of the inclination to repression, the state of the system ofpermeable neurones (phi) has been touched. These 2 processes indicate than an organization has been formed in the system of impermeable neurones (psi) whose presence interferes with passages of quantity which on the first occasion occurred in a particular way; i.e., accompanied by satisfaction or pain. The ego in psi, which can be treated like the nervous system as a whole, will, when the processes in psi are uninfluenced, be made helpless and suffer injury. This will happen if, while it is in a wishful state, it newly cathects the memory of an object and then sets discharge in action. Both wishful cathexis and release for unpleasure, where the memory in question is cathected anew, can be biologically detrimental. During the process of wishing, inhibition by the ego brings about a moderated cathexis of the wished for object, which allows it to be cognized as not real. Simultaneously with the wishful cathexis of the mnemic image, the perception of it is present. Judging is a psi process which is only made possible by inhibition by the ego and which is evoked by the dissimilarity between the wishful cathexis of a memory and a perceptual cathexis that is similar to it. Reproductive thought has a practical aim and a biologically established end. The aim and end of all thought processes is to bring about a state of identity. Cognitive or judging thought seeks an identity with a bodily cathexis, reproductive thought seeks it with a psychical cathexis of an experience of one’s own.
Project for a scientific psychology. General scheme-Part I: Sections 19-21 and Appendix A (1895).
The primary processes of the system of impermeable neurones (psi) are presented daily during sleep. The essential precondition of sleep is a lowering of the endogenous load in the psi nucleus. Dreams exhibit transitions to the waking state and to a mixture with normal psi processes; yet it is easy to sift out what is genuine and what is not in the nature of a dream. Dreams are devoid of motor discharge and, for the most part, of motor elements. The connections in dreams are partly nonsensical, partly feeble minded, or even meaningless or strangely crazy. Dream ideas are of a hallucinatory kind; they awaken consciousness and meet with belief. The aim and sense of dreams can be established with certainty. Dreams are poorly remembered. Consciousness in dreams furnishes quality with as little trouble as in waking life. Consciousness of dream ideas is discontinuous.
Project for a scientific psychology. Psychopathology-Part II: Sections 1-2 (1895).
Every observer of hysteria is struck by the fact that hysterical patients are subject to a compulsion which is exercised by excessively intense ideas. Hysterical compulsion is unintelligible, incapable of being resolved by the activity of thought, and incongruous in its structure. There is a defensive process emanating from the cathected ego which results in hysterical repression and, along with it, in hysterical compulsion. To that extent the process seems to be differentiated from the primary process of the system of impermeable neurones.
Project for a scientific psychology. Psychopathology-Part II: Sections 3-6 (1895).
The outcome of hysterical repression differs very widely from that of normal defense. It is quite generally the case that we avoid thinking of what arouses only unpleasure, and we do this by directing our thoughts to something else. Hysterical repression takes place with the help of symbol formation, of displacement on to other neurones. Hysterical compulsion originates from a peculiar kind of symbol formation which is probably a primary process. Although it does not usually happen in psychical life that a memory arouses an affect which it did not give rise to as an experience, this is nevertheless something quite usual in the case of a sexual idea, precisely because the retardation of puberty is a general characteristic of the organization. The disturbance of the normal psychical process had 2 determinants: 1) that the sexual release was attached to a memory instead of to an experience; and 2) that the sexual release took place prematurely. It is the business of the ego not to permit any release of affect, because this at the same time permits a primary process.
Project for a scientific psychology. Attempt to represent normal psi processes-Part III(1895).
Attention consists in establishing the psychical state of expectation even for those perceptions which do not coincide in part with wishful cathexes. Attention is biologically justified; it is only a question of guiding the ego as to which expectant cathexis it is to establish and this purpose is served by the indications of quality Speech association makes cognition possible. The indications of speech discharge put thought processes on a level with perceptual processes, lend them reality, and make memory of them possible. It is characteristic of the process of cognitive thought that during it, attention is, from the first, directed to the indications of thought discharge, to the indications of speech. A bound state, which combines high cathexis with small current, mechanically characterizes the processes of thought. For the ego, the biological rule of attention runs: If an indication of reality appears, then the perceptual cathexis which is simultaneously present is to be hypercathected. Thought accompanied by a cathexis of the indications of thought reality or the indications of speech is the highest, securest form of cognitive thought process. Memory consists in facilitations that are not altered by a rise in the level of cathexis; but there are facilitations that come into effect only at a particular level. Alongside of cognitive and practical thought, there is a reproductive, remembering thought, which in part enters into practical thought, but does not exhaust it. Thought may lead to unpleasure or to contradiction.
Project for a scientific psychology. Attempt to represent normal psi processes-Part III: Appendices B and C (1895)
There are 3 ways in which the neurones affect one another: 1) they transfer quantity to one another; 2) they transfer quality to one another; and 3) they have an exciting effect on one another. The perceptual processes involve consciousness and would only produce their further psychical effects after becoming conscious. The nature of quantity (Q) is discussed. Q appears in 2 distinguishable forms. The first of these is Q in flow, passing through a neurone or from one neurone to another. The second, more static, form is shown by a cathected neurone filled with Q. Q would appear to be measurable in 2 ways: by the height of the level of cathexis within a neurone and by the amount of flow between cathexes. Whatever may be the precise details of the mechanism responsible for bringing about the transformation of free into bound Q, it is evident that Freud attached the greatest importance to the distinction itself.
Abstracts of the Standard Edition of
the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud
Carrie Lee Rothgeb, Editor